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7 CHAPTER TWO OVERVIEW OF DRIVER INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES In the book Using Psychology: Principles of Behavior and 391 at 49 CFR 391. These regulations also establish mini- Your Life, Holland (1975) presents following two "metaprin- mum duties of motor carriers in verifying driver qualifi- ciples" of human behavior: cations. An owner-operator with DOT operating authority must meet both the driver and carrier requirements. An 1. Individual Differences: Each person is physically and excellent summary of driver qualifications as well as other psychologically unique. safety-related regulations and best practices is A Motor Car- rier's Guide to Improving Highway Safety (FMCSA 2008), 2. Behavioral Consistency: Each person behaves relatively available from the agency. consistently over time and across different situations. Although there are several farming-related and other People have significant individual differences, and these exemptions, the following are key commercial driver individual differences persist over long periods because each requirements and responsibilities: individual behaves consistently in many ways over time. These consistent, enduring human individual differences have Be at least 21 years old significant influences on the probability of crash involvement Speak and read English (Lancaster and Ward 2002; Knipling et al. 2004). They are a Be able to drive the vehicle safely potentially fair basis for commercial driver selection because Possess a medical certificate they are likely to persist on the job and affect job performance. Have a valid Commercial Drivers License (CDL) Provide motor carrier employer with a list of all viola- This chapter will first define the general characteristics tions during the past 12 months and qualifications that all U.S. commercial drivers must have. Pass a driver's road test or equivalent It will then describe and define key driver characteristics Know how to safety load and secure cargo. and personal dimensions with known relationships to safety- related behavior and especially to driving safety. This will lay Every motor carrier must have a qualification file for each the groundwork for the following chapter, which will address regularly employed driver, including the following: procedures, tests, and measurements to assess safety-related driver individual differences in the hiring process. Driver's application for employment 3-year driving record from state agency Driver's road test certificate GENERAL DRIVER QUALIFICATIONS Annual inquiries to state agencies for driving records Annual carrier review of the above This report focuses on carrier assessment of driver applicants' Annual driver's certification of violations during pre- crash risks during the hiring process. It does not focus on fed- vious 12 months eral minimum qualifications for drivers, or required carrier Medical examiner's certificate tasks to verify that those qualifications are met. Rather, the Special certificates as applicable (e.g., drivers with lost emphasis is on driver risk assessments beyond verification limbs, longer combination vehicle drivers) that they meet minimum requirements. Nevertheless, it is Driver investigation history file worthwhile to briefly review those qualifications, as they are Inquiry to previous employer(s) over 3 years a baseline for any further consideration of driver applicants, Drug and alcohol testing release form and they also reflect risk factors officially considered safety- Notes of responses received from above. critical. This section briefly reviews those requirements. Driver Physical Qualifications General Federal Requirements for Drivers Commercial driver physical qualification standards are Commercial driver general qualification standards are found found in 49 CFR 391.41. These regulations prevent persons in Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSR) Part with certain specified medical conditions from operating a