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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 60 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Guidelines for Integrating Alternative Jet Fuel into the Airport Setting
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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Consultant, Silver Spring, MD Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (re- VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson tired) EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board VICE CHAIR MEMBERS Jeff Hamiel MinneapolisSt. Paul J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Metropolitan Airports Commission Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA MEMBERS William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles James Crites Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh DallasFort Worth International Airport James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Richard de Neufville Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Massachusetts Institute of Technology Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Kevin C. Dolliole Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Unison Consulting John K. Duval Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence Austin Commercial, LP Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Kitty Freidheim Joan McDonald, Commissioner, New York State DOT, Albany Freidheim Consulting Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Steve Grossman Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Jacksonville Aviation Authority Tom Jensen Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA National Safe Skies Alliance Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Catherine M. Lang Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Federal Aviation Administration David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Gina Marie Lindsey Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA Los Angeles World Airports Carolyn Motz Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Airport Design Consultants, Inc. Lafayette, IN Richard Tucker Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul Huntsville International Airport Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Paula P. Hochstetler Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI Airport Consultants Council C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Sabrina Johnson U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Richard Marchi Airports Council International--North America J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Laura McKee Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Air Transport Association of America Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Melissa Sabatine Interior, Washington, DC American Association of Airport Executives John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Washington, DC Transportation Research Board John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC SECRETARY David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Christopher W. Jenks Michael P. Melaniphy, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA Gregory D. Winfree, Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of July 2011. *Membership as of December 2011.
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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 60 Guidelines for Integrating Alternative Jet Fuel into the Airport Setting Bruno Miller Terry Thompson Michael Johnson Meghan Brand Alan McDonald METRON AVIATION Dulles, VA Donald Schenk Judith Driver Larry Leistritz Arlen Leholm Nancy Hodur David Plavin ACA ASSOCIATES New York, NY Diana Glassman INTEGRATION STRATEGY, INC. New York, NY Amar Anumakonda HONEYWELL/UOP Des Plaines, IL Richard Altman RCB ALTMAN ASSOCIATES, LLC Wethersfield, CT Subscriber Categories Aviation · Energy · Environment Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org
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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 60 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 02-18 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-21380-6 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2011945810 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most © 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT INFORMATION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. they are considered essential to the object of the report. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America
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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 60 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Joseph J. Brown-Snell, Program Associate Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-18 PANEL Field of Environment Mary L. Vigilante, Synergy Consultants, Inc., Seattle, WA (Chair) John B. Ackerman, Denver International Airport, Denver, CO Lisa D. Loftus-Otway, Center for Transportation Research, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX Michael Lufkin, Port of Seattle, Seattle, WA Debra K. Wilcox, Bye Engineering LIC, Englewood, CO Nathan Brown, FAA Liaison Chris Hugunin, FAA Liaison Sabrina Johnson, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Chris Oswald, Airports Council InternationalNorth America Liaison Tim A. Pohle, Air Transport Association of America, Inc., Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison
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FOREWORD By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 60: Guidelines for Integrating Alternative Jet Fuel into the Airport Setting is a handbook for airport operators and others associated with "drop-in" alternative jet fuel production and delivery that summarizes issues and opportunities associated with locating (on- or off-airport) an alternative jet fuel production facility, and its fuel storage and dis- tribution requirements. The handbook identifies the types and characteristics of alternative fuels; summarizes potential benefits; addresses legal, financial, environmental, and logis- tical considerations and opportunities; and aids in evaluating the feasibility of alternative jet fuel production facilities. Virtually all of the fuel currently used in aviation operations is derived from petroleum. Petroleum fuel supply and associated pricing (both level and volatility) are key business challenges for the industry. In addition, concerns about environmental impacts compound challenges facing the aviation sector as it continues to meet demand. Drop-in alternatives to jet fuel provide great promise for the aviation industry from environmental, energy security, and economic perspectives. Several demonstration flights recently have shown that technology is available to produce alternative jet fuel that can be used to safely fly existing aircraft. Key challenges to moving forward with commercial use of alternative jet fuel include the formation of an effective business plan addressing production at marketable prices and quantities, with fuel deliverable at the appropriate point in the supply chain. One concept that has received significant industry interest is to locate an alternative fuel pro- duction facility on, adjacent to, or with access to an airport to take advantage of known demand. Access to known demand at an airport could encourage investment by an alterna- tive fuel producer in aviation fuel. In order to provide a path forward for locating an alternative fuel production facility and associated infrastructure, research has been pro- vided to evaluate the legal, financial, environmental, and logistical considerations and opportunities associated with launching such a project. This handbook was developed from the research conducted for ACRP Project 02-18 and will assist airport operators and those stakeholders interested in locating (on- or off-airport) an alternative jet fuel production facility and determining its storage and distribution requirements. A section is included on frequently asked questions, along with supporting material and worksheets that incorporate regulatory, environmental, logistical, and financial require- ments. There are also appendices that provide a primer on alternative fuels, the feedstocks and production technologies for producing alternative fuels, economic benefits, and financial and regulatory considerations.
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CONTENTS 1 Purpose of the Handbook 2 How to Use This Handbook 4 Section 1 Introduction 4 1.1 What Are Alternative Jet Fuels? 4 1.2 What Is Driving the Interest in Alternative Jet Fuels? 6 1.3 Why Are Airports Interested in Alternative Jet Fuels? 6 1.4 What Roles Can Airports Play in Alternative Fuel Projects? 7 1.5 Limitations of the Handbook 7 1.6 Resources for Further Information 8 Section 2 What Are the Main Characteristics of Alternative Jet Fuels? 8 2.1 Safety and Drop-in Characteristics of Alternative Jet Fuels 9 2.2 Feedstocks for Producing Alternative Jet Fuels 15 2.3 Technologies for Producing Alternative Jet Fuels 19 2.4 Environmental Benefits of Alternative Jet Fuels 21 2.5 Economic Benefits of Alternative Jet Fuels 22 2.6 Possible Economic Implications of Regulation 22 2.6.1 National Ambient Air Quality Standards 23 2.6.2 Emission Reduction Credits 23 2.6.3 Domestic and International Policies Related to Greenhouse Gas Reductions 24 2.6.4 EPA Renewable Fuel Standards 24 2.6.5 Federal Rules for Purchase of Alternative Fuels 25 Section 3 How Can Alternative Jet Fuels Be Integrated into the Airport Setting? 25 3.1 Introduction to Evaluation Framework 25 3.2 Alternative Jet Fuel Projects Evaluation Framework 26 3.3 Stakeholder Analysis 27 3.4 Initial Screening of Options 29 3.5 Comparative Evaluation of Screened Options 30 3.5.1 Regulatory 37 3.5.2 Environmental 39 3.5.3 Logistical 41 3.5.4 Financial 43 3.5.5 Overall Evaluation and Selection of Options for Further Study 43 3.6 Suggested Next Steps
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44 Section 4 Frequently Asked Questions 44 4.1 What Are Some of the Potential Community Concerns About Alternative Jet Fuel? 45 4.2 What Are Some Potential Concerns Regarding Production of Alternative Jet Fuel? 47 4.3 What Are Some of the Potential Concerns Around the Storage, Handling, and Use of Alternative Jet Fuel? 48 Section 5 Supporting Materials and Worksheets 48 5.1 Supporting Material to Evaluate Potential Environmental Benefits of Alternative Jet Fuels 49 5.2 Worksheets 49 5.2.1 Worksheet 1: Stakeholder Analysis 50 5.2.2 Worksheet 2: Regulatory Considerations 53 5.2.3 Worksheet 3: Energy Policy Considerations 56 5.2.4 Worksheet 4: Logistical Considerations 57 5.2.5 Worksheet 5: Financial Considerations 58 5.2.6 Worksheet 6: Evaluation Summary 60 Section 6 Bibliography 60 6.1 FAA Advisory Circulars, Orders, Regulations, and Peripheral Documentation 60 6.2 State Environmental Permitting Guides 60 6.3 Certification 62 6.4 Feedstocks for Alternative Jet Fuels 64 6.5 Production Technologies for Alternative Jet Fuels 65 6.6 Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Benefits 66 6.7 Economic Benefits of Alternative Jet Fuels 66 6.8 Possible Economic Benefits of Regulation 67 6.9 Financial Considerations 67 6.10 Regulatory Considerations 68 6.11 Publicly Announced Alternative Jet Fuel Projects 69 Appendices: Primer on Alternative Jet Fuels 71 Appendix A Introduction 72 Appendix B Certification and Drop-In Capability of Alternative Jet Fuels 74 Appendix C Feedstocks for Producing Alternative Jet Fuels 84 Appendix D Production Technologies for Alternative Jet Fuels 88 Appendix E Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Benefits 92 Appendix F Economic Benefits 94 Appendix G Possible Economic Implications of Regulation 97 Appendix H Financial Considerations 100 Appendix I Regulatory Considerations 111 Appendix J Transportation and Logistics of Alternative Fuels 112 Appendix K Publicly Announced Aviation Alternative Fuel Projects 114 Glossary 116 Acronyms and Abbreviations 119 References