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19 CHAPTER FIVE ALCOHOL- AND DRUG-TESTING STATISTICS Comprehensive alcohol- and drug-testing statistics for the The positivity rates are not weighted by the stratified sam- transportation workplace are not readily available to the ples that were often used to collect the data. Therefore, they public. To obtain the most recent set of complete alcohol- and may not represent the true values for the relevant populations. drug-testing statistics, DF Consulting (DFC) made a request for the most recent set of data to the DOT Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance (ODAPC), the FAA, the AVIATION USCG, the FMCSA, the PHMSA, the FTA, and the FRA. ODAPC provided a coordinated response to DFC in the form The FAA collects data from all major airlines (with 14 CFT of a spreadsheet containing data for all the modes (Swart, Part 121 certification, such as Delta, United, and Ameri- personal communication, Nov. 15, 2010). Unless otherwise can). There are about 100 of these companies. The FAA also noted, the following statistics reflect what was provided to requires employers with 50 or more safety-sensitive employ- DFC by ODAPC. ees to report data. In addition, approximately 2,000 com- panies with fewer than 50 safety-sensitive employees are DFC calculated the positivity rates for the individual selected at random to provide data. modes based on the data provided by ODAPC. The positivity rate for drugs was calculated by adding the verified positive Tables 6 and 7 report the FAA 2008 drug and alcohol test tests for one or more drugs to the total number of refusals results, respectively. Figure 2 shows the drug and alcohol (adulterated, substituted, "shy bladder," and other refusals) positivity rates by test type. and dividing the sum by the total number of test results. The positivity rate for alcohol was calculated by adding the con- For drugs, pre-employment tests had the highest number firmed alcohol violations (tests with BAC 0.040) to the of positives, followed by random tests and follow-up. Reason- total number of refusals ("shy lung" and other refusals) and able cause was the type of test with the highest weighted posi- dividing the sum by the total number of test results. Refusals tivity rate. Marijuana was the most commonly detected drug. were added to verified positive tests because, according to 49 CFR Part 40.261, a refusal has the same consequences as For alcohol, reasonable cause tests had the highest num- a violation, presumably because an employee who refuses ber of positives, followed by random and follow-up tests. does so as an attempt to hide a positive test. Reasonable cause was the type of test with the highest unweighted positivity rate. TABLE 6 FAA 2008 DRUG TEST RESULTS Refusals Total Number of Test Positive for Cocaine Positive for Opiates Verified Negative Verified Positive Tests for One or Cancelled Tests Amphetamines Other Refusals "Shy Bladder" Phencyclidine Test Reason More Drugs Adulterated Positive for Positive for Positive for Substituted Marijuana Results Tests Pre-employment 85,291 84,409 833 645 125 9 13 52 1 4 6 38 185 Random 110,207 109,559 575 362 150 1 14 62 3 6 12 52 246 Postaccident 693 688 5 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 Reasonable Cause 197 159 30 15 11 0 1 7 0 2 1 5 1 Return-to-Duty 363 354 9 5 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Follow-up 2,759 2,708 50 25 16 0 0 11 0 0 0 1 5 Total 199,510 197,877 1,502 1,056 307 10 28 133 4 12 19 96 440