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2 CHAPTER ONE OBJECTIVES The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) oversees of illegal drugs, whether on duty or off duty, by those indi- the largest drug and alcohol testing program in the United viduals who are involved in the operation of aircraft, train, States. The program is managed and coordinated by the trucks, and buses. Office of the Secretary of Transportation. DOT regulations are codified in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations This project had the following objectives: (49 CFR Part 40), which concerns the activities of transpor- tation employers, safety-sensitive transportation employees Synthesize the general DOT procedures for the trans- (including self-employed individuals, contractors, and vol- portation workplace drug and alcohol testing programs. unteers), and service agents. Synthesize the specific regulations by mode. Provide DOT alcohol and drug testing statistics. Compliance and enforcement within the different trans- Identify alternative strategies currently considered portation modes are the responsibility of the agency that or implemented by the regulated community to deter has regulatory authority over that particular industry. The illegal drug and alcohol use among safety-sensitive Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 pro- employees. mulgated the elimination of abuse of alcohol and the use Provide suggestions for future research.