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20 TABLE 7 FAA 2008 ALCOHOL TEST RESULTS Refusals Number of Confirma- Confirmation Tests Confirmation Tests BAC 0.0200.039 tion Test Results Total Number of Cancelled Tests Screening Test Other Refusals BAC 0.020 BAC 0.020 BAC 0.040 Test Reason "Shy Lung" Results Pre-employment 2,022 2,021 1 5 0 0 0 0 10 Random 49,767 49,640 112 149 34 46 0 15 23 Postaccident 269 268 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 Reasonable Cause 223 89 124 117 19 96 0 10 1 Return-to-Duty 173 172 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 Follow-up 1,485 1,468 17 15 2 10 0 0 0 Total 53,939 53,658 256 288 55 154 0 25 34 FIGURE 2 FAA 2008 drug and alcohol unweighted positivity rates by test type. MARITIME MOTOR CARRIERS All marine employers are required to report testing data. Because the size of motor carriers can range from one employee However, 2008 data were received from approximately to several thousand employees, to obtain unbiased estimates of 5055% of the marine employers--with consortia/third- alcohol and drug usage, the FMCSA collects data from motor party administrators (C/TPAs) doing the reporting for their carriers on the basis of stratified samples, as follows: individual companies. C/TPAs reported approximately 8085% of the submitted data. 1 CDL driver: select 600 carriers; 2 to 19 CDL drivers: select 900 carriers; As mentioned earlier, 49 CFR Part 40 alcohol-testing 20 to 99 CDL drivers: select 450 carriers; requirements do not apply to the maritime industry. Thus, 100 to 249 CDL drivers: select 400 carriers; no alcohol data could be obtained. 250 to 999 CDL drivers: select 400 carriers; 1,000 or more CDL drivers: select all carriers. Table 8 reports the USCG 2008 drug-testing results. Fig- ure 3 shows the drug positivity rates by test type. Tables 9 and 10 report the FMCSA 2008 drug and alcohol test results, respectively. Figure 4 shows the drug and alco- Pre-employment tests had the highest number of posi- hol unweighted positivity rates by test type. tives, followed by random and postaccident tests. Reasonable cause was the type of test with the highest unweighted posi- For drugs, pre-employment tests had the highest num- tivity rate. Marijuana was the most commonly detected drug. ber of positives, followed by random and postaccident tests.

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21 TABLE 8 USCG 2008 DRUG TEST RESULTS Refusals Total Number of Test Positive for Cocaine Positive for Opiates Verified Negative Verified Positive Tests for One or Cancelled Tests Amphetamines Other Refusals "Shy Bladder" Phencyclidine Test Reason More Drugs Adulterated Positive for Positive for Positive for Substituted Marijuana Results Tests Pre-employment 36,677 35,669 937 726 167 1 17 56 19 3 4 45 239 Random 57,526 56,860 587 361 164 6 17 58 10 5 1 63 319 Postaccident 7,290 7,181 95 63 26 1 2 3 2 2 0 10 102 Reasonable Cause 709 641 54 39 10 0 1 12 1 0 0 13 1 Return-to-Duty 443 437 5 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 Follow-up 583 569 12 9 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 1 Total 103,228 101,357 1,690 1,203 368 8 37 132 32 10 5 134 664 FIGURE 3 USCG 2008 unweighted drug positivity rates by test type. TABLE 9 FMCSA 2008 DRUG TEST RESULTS Refusals Total Number of Test Positive for Cocaine Positive for Opiates Verified Negative Verified Positive Tests for One or Cancelled Tests Amphetamines Other Refusals "Shy Bladder" Phencyclidine Test Reason More Drugs Adulterated Positive for Positive for Positive for Substituted Marijuana Results Tests Pre-employment 457,511 451,008 6,077 4,161 1,514 51 154 354 36 38 75 277 1,121 Random 448,881 445,329 3,043 1,777 990 8 71 272 19 18 49 423 1,165 Postaccident 20,449 20,181 236 141 70 0 8 25 1 1 1 29 155 Reasonable Suspicion 728 605 97 43 40 1 10 11 2 0 1 23 7 Return-to-Duty 2,433 2,392 41 29 8 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 6 Follow-up 7,512 7,377 123 60 41 0 4 18 2 2 1 7 29 Total 937,514 926,892 9,617 6,211 2,663 60 248 684 60 59 127 759 2,483

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22 TABLE 10 FMCSA 2008 ALCOHOL TEST RESULTS Refusals Number of Confirma- Confirmation Tests Confirmation Tests BAC 0.0200.039 tion Test Results Total Number of Cancelled Tests Screening Test Other Refusals BAC 0.020 BAC 0.020 BAC 0.040 Test Reason "Shy Lung" Results Pre-employment 5,235 5,218 17 125 3 3 0 0 2 Random 118,511 117,876 585 960 61 88 4 46 71 Postaccident 10,524 10,431 69 143 7 11 0 24 6 Reasonable Suspicion 498 339 139 126 30 87 0 20 0 Return-to-Duty 489 485 4 11 0 0 0 0 1 Follow-up 3,254 3,225 28 18 10 8 0 1 1 Total 138,511 137,574 842 1,383 111 197 4 91 81 FIGURE 4 FMCSA 2008 drug and alcohol unweighted positivity rates by test type. Reasonable suspicion was the type of test with the highest commonly detected drug. Reasonable suspicion was the unweighted positivity rate. Marijuana was the most com- type of alcohol test with the highest weighted positivity rate. monly detected drug. Thus, no major discrepancies were observed between the unweighted and weighted rates. For alcohol, random tests had the highest number of positives, followed by reasonable cause and follow-up tests. TABLE 11 Reasonable suspicion was the type of test with the highest WEIGHTED YEARLY POSITIVITY RATES (%) FOR RANDOM unweighted positivity rate. DRUG TESTS BY DRUG TYPE Drug Category 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Every few years, the FMCSA also publishes the results Any Drug 2.00 1.60 1.70 1.30 1.30 1.04 of its drug- and alcohol-testing survey (Gruberg 1997, 2007; Amphetamines 0.10* 0.10* 0.40* 0.30* 0.20* 0.07 Khan 2010). Those reports provide positivity rates that are weighted by stratified samples and therefore are a better Cocaine 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.40 0.40 0.20 estimation of the positivity rates in the national population Marijuana 0.60 0.80 0.60 1.00 0.60 0.65 of commercial drivers. Tables 11 to 13 report the adjusted Opiates 0.01 0.10* 0.040* 0.03* 0.00 0.040* positivity rates from 2003 to 2008. Phencyclidine 0.00* 0.10* 0.00* 0.00 Note: Estimates marked with an asterisk (*) must be interpreted with caution Reasonable suspicion was the type of drug test with the because of extremely low precision. A dash () indicates no usage found in highest weighted positivity rate. Marijuana was the most sample cases.