Click for next page ( 26


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 25
25 TABLE 17 FTA 2008 ALCOHOL TEST RESULTS Refusals Number of Confirma- Confirmation Tests Confirmation Tests BAC 0.0200.039 tion Test Results Total Number of Cancelled Tests Screening Test Other Refusals BAC 0.020 BAC 0.020 BAC 0.040 Test Reason "Shy Lung" Results Pre-employment 15,102 15,081 19 22 8 6 1 1 4 Random 40,237 40,132 86 75 24 41 6 13 26 Postaccident 13,300 13,273 20 18 2 13 1 6 18 Reasonable Suspicion 538 388 138 129 26 94 1 11 5 Return-to-Duty 425 420 4 3 2 1 0 1 0 Follow-up 5,026 5,004 19 18 7 10 1 2 1 Total 74,628 74,298 286 265 69 165 10 34 54 FIGURE 6 FTA 2008 drug and alcohol unweighted positivity rates by test type. Tables 16 and 17 report the FTA 2008 drug and alcohol tests and random alcohol tests both declined considerably test results, respectively. Figure 6 shows the drug and alco- over time. hol positivity rates by test type. For drugs, pre-employment tests had the highest num- RAIL ber of positives, followed by random and postaccident tests. Reasonable cause was the type of test with the highest For 2008, the FRA collected data from all employers with unweighted positivity rate. Marijuana was the most com- 400,000 man-hours per year or more. These 40 railroads monly detected drug. employ 105,564 of the estimated 130,000 industry safety- sensitive workforce. For alcohol, reasonable suspicion tests had the highest number of positives, followed by random and postaccident Tables 18 and 19 report the FRA 2008 drug and alcohol tests. Reasonable cause was the type of test with the highest test results, respectively. Figure 8 shows the drug and alco- unweighted positivity rate. hol positivity rates by test type. Note that ODAPC provided no data for postaccident tests. The FTA regularly produces comprehensive reports on the results of its drug- and alcohol-testing program. For drugs, random tests had the highest number of positives, The most recent (Redington et al. 2009) reports the drug followed by pre-employment and follow-up tests. Follow-up and alcohol positivity rates from 1995 to 2007. As can was the type of test with the highest unweighted positivity rate. be seen in Figure 7, the positivity rates for random drug Marijuana was the most commonly detected drug.

OCR for page 25
26 FIGURE 7 FTA annual drug and alcohol positivity rates for random tests. TABLE 18 FRA 2008 DRUG TEST RESULTS Refusals Total Number of Test Positive for Cocaine Positive for Opiates Verified Negative Verified Positive Tests for One or Cancelled Tests Amphetamines Other Refusals "Shy Bladder" Test Reason Phencyclidine More Drugs Adulterated Positive for Positive for Positive for Substituted Marijuana Results Tests Pre-employment 9,093 9,034 56 47 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 14 Random 37,585 37,412 163 97 49 0 2 19 2 2 3 3 41 Reasonable Suspicion/Cause 298 296 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Return-to-Duty 3,816 3,789 26 15 8 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 4 Follow-up 2,893 2,868 21 9 11 0 0 2 0 0 1 3 15 Total 53,685 53,399 267 168 75 1 3 25 2 2 4 11 75 TABLE 19 FRA 2008 ALCOHOL TEST RESULTS Refusals Number of Confirma- Confirmation Tests Confirmation Tests BAC 0.0200.039 tion Test Results Total Number of Cancelled Tests Screening Test Other Refusals BAC 0.020 BAC 0.020 BAC 0.040 Test Reason "Shy Lung" Results Pre-employment 960 959 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Random 41,782 41,648 129 128 70 58 2 3 0 Reasonable Suspicion/Cause 253 251 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 Return-to-Duty 3,751 3,736 15 15 4 11 0 0 0 Follow-up 2,514 2,476 38 37 9 28 0 0 0 Total 49,260 49,070 184 182 84 98 2 4 0 For alcohol, random tests had the highest number of posi- Figure 9 shows the combined drug and alcohol positiv- tives, followed by reasonable suspicion/cause and follow- ity rates for postaccident tests from 1987 to 2007 (United up tests. Follow-up was the type of test with the highest Transportation Union 2008). The data were obtained from unweighted positivity rate. 39 railroads with 400,000 man-hours per year or more.