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27 FIGURE 8 FRA 2008 drug and alcohol unweighted positivity rates by test type. FIGURE 9 FRA combined drug and alcohol positivity rates for postaccident tests, 19872007, as reported by the United Transportation Union (2008). DRUG POSITIVITY RATES IN DIFFERENT Consistent with ODAPC data for the individual modes, WORKFORCES the test with the highest positivity rate was reasonable cause, for both the federally mandated, safety-sensitive Figure 10 shows the overall positivity rates for four types workforce and the general U.S. workforce (see Table 20). of workforce: the combined U.S. workforce; the federally Also consistent with ODAPC data, the most commonly mandated, safety-sensitive workforce; the general U.S. detected drug was marijuana (see Table 21). Note, how- workforce (Quest Diagnostics September 2010); and the ever, that the general U.S. workforce is also tested for some DOT-only workforce (Swart, personal communication, Nov. medicinal drugs. 22, 2010). Note that the federally mandated, safety-sensitive workforce includes primarily the DOT-regulated workforce, In general, supervisors currently receive 1 h of training with some non-DOT employees from the nuclear energy on the specific, contemporaneous physical, behavioral, and industry. Transportation Security Agency screeners are not performance indicators of probable drug use and 1 h on the included in the DOT-only workforce. specific, contemporaneous physical, behavioral, and perfor- mance indicators of alcohol use. This training has proven to be The positivity rate for the combined U.S. workforce dropped effective. In all modes, reasonable cause tests have the highest from 13.6% in 1988 to 3.6% in 2009. From 2005 to 2009, the alcohol and drug positivity rates, as shown in Table 22. positivity rate for the federally mandated, safety-sensitive work- force dropped from 2.3% to 1.5%. From 2008 to 2010, the posi- Although the results vary by mode, it appears that tivity rate for the DOT-only workforce dropped from 1.64% to supervisors are better able to detect alcohol than drugs. 1.49%. Thus, positivity rates have been declining over time, This is not surprising, as people tend to have more famil- with the DOT-only workforce having the lowest positivity rates. iarity with the visible effects of alcohol than the visible

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28 FIGURE 10 Urine drug test annual positivity rates. TABLE 20 ANNUAL POSITIVITY RATES (%) FOR FEDERALLY MANDATED, SAFETY-SENSITIVE WORKFORCE AND GENERAL U.S. WORKFORCE, BY TESTING REASON Federally Mandated, General U.S. Workforce Safety-Sensitive Workforce Test Reason 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Pre-employment 2.6 2.3 2.0 1.7 1.5 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.4 Postaccident 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.2 5.8 5.7 5.8 5.6 5.3 Random 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4 6.6 5.5 5.7 5.3 5.4 Reasonable Cause 13.4 12.4 11.1 9.9 11.1 28.3 18.1 19.2 22.0 26.8 Return-to-Duty 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.1 3.0 6.0 5.8 5.6 5.3 4.6 Follow-up 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.2 2.5 9.6 7.4 7.7 7.6 7.5 Periodic 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.7 0.8 2.4 1.9 1.4 1.4 1.5 Note. Periodic testing is not part of DOT testing. TABLE 21 ANNUAL POSITIVITY RATES (%) FOR FEDERALLY MANDATED, SAFETY-SENSITIVE WORKFORCE AND GENERAL U.S. WORKFORCE, BY DRUG TYPE Federally Mandated, General U.S. Workforce Safety-Sensitive Workforce Drug Category 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Overall 2.30 2.00 1.80 1.60 1.50 4.50 4.40 4.40 4.20 4.20 Amphetamines 0.35 0.28 0.25 0.26 0.29 0.48 0.42 0.44 0.48 0.57 Barbiturates 0.25 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 Benzodiazepines 0.58 0.62 0.67 0.70 0.74 Cocaine 0.60 0.58 0.44 0.32 0.24 0.69 0.69 0.55 0.39 0.28 Marijuana 1.10 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.69 2.30 2.00 2.00 1.80 1.70 Methadone 0.23 0.22 0.23 0.22 0.23 Opiates 0.18 0.17 0.18 0.20 0.21 0.29 0.28 0.32 0.34 0.39 Oxycodone 0.56 0.64 0.88 0.83 1.00 Phencyclidine 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 Propoxyphene 0.57 0.55 0.58 0.56 0.48

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29 effects of drugs. In either case, what is remarkable is that with a minimum of 2 h of training, 1 for alcohol and 1 for drugs, supervisors can correctly identify so many signs of illegal alcohol and drug use. TABLE 22 PROBABLE CAUSE ALCOHOL AND DRUG POSITIVITY RATES (%) BY MODE Mode Positive Alcohol Rate Positive Drug Rate Aviation 47.5 19.3 Maritime 17.1 Motor Carrier 21.5 16.9 Pipelines 15.3 17.1 Public Transit 19.7 10.9 Rail 1.1 0.9