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38 an individual is an illegal drug user. These tests benefit from HIGHER RANDOM TESTING RATES a relatively large detection window, hence the usefulness of hair testing. Postaccident tests, in contrast, may be admin- Some companies set target rates for the random alcohol and istered not only to determine whether an individual is an drug tests that exceed the minimum rates established by their illegal drug user, but also to determine, for forensic and legal regulatory agencies. Of the companies sampled for this project, purposes, whether the individual was impaired at the time of Greyhound Lines, J.B. Hunt Transport, and BNSF conduct ran- the accident. These tests require the detection of the active dom alcohol and drug tests above the minimum requirements. analytes and benefit from a relatively short detection win- dow, which frames the co-occurrence of the accident and of Greyhound Lines, Inc., is the largest provider of intercity the drug use within a relatively brief period of time. Blood bus transportation, with 8,500 employees nationwide. Grey- and oral fluids tests are best suited for these needs. hound's third-party administrator is HireRight, a global provider of employment drug and background screening. According to HireRight, Greyhound Lines maintains annual TABLE 32 random testing rates at 55% for drugs and 15% for alcohol. POSITIVITY RATES (%) BY TYPE OF TEST FOR URINE DRUG TESTS AND HAIR DRUG TESTS FOR THE GENERAL U.S. WORKFORCE J.B. Hunt Transport testing rates are 55% for drugs and more than 10% for alcohol. Unannounced, random drug and Pre-employment Random Year alcohol tests are spread periodically throughout the year, Urine Hair Urine Hair aiming for completion on a quarterly basis. This method 2005 3.9 7.0 6.6 12.7 attempts to eliminate the possibility of falling short of the 2006 3.9 7.2 5.5 11.0 random rates at the end of the year owing to unpredictable 2007 3.9 7.4 5.7 15.8 circumstances, such as employees leaving the company before being tested. 2008 3.6 6.3 5.3 9.6 2009 (Jan.June) 3.4 4.7 5.4 10.4 BNSF conducts random testing at a higher frequency than the minimum for both drug and alcohol tests. As of Novem- The usefulness of additional specimens to the DOT pro- ber 1, 2010, all FRA and company random testing is admin- tocol must be weighed against the practical complexity of istered at 37.5% for both alcohol and drug tests. Exceptions managing a drug-testing program with different specimens. include all FRA random road tests are alcohol tests only for For each type of specimen, collection methods, analyte cut- all outbound trains, and FMCSA random tests continue at offs, and laboratory standards and procedures must be imple- 50% for alcohol and 50% for drugs. mented. Given the size of the DOT drug-testing program, careful consideration must be given to the logistical and finan- Higher random testing rates are a fair and effective cial burden associated with the use of additional specimens. strategy for increasing compliance with alcohol and drug policies. With the exception of costs to the company, this Although specific types of specimens are best suited for strategy has no adverse effects. specific types of tests, urine is the only specimen that is ade- quately suited for all types of tests. Table 33 rates the useful- ness of the window of detection of different specimens as a LONGER PREDUTY ALCOHOL ABSTINENCE PERIODS function of type of drug test. If only one type of specimen is to be used for practical and economic reasons, urine is cur- Companies can require longer preduty alcohol abstinence rently the best option. periods than the required 4 to 8 h. J.B. Hunt, for example, requires 12 h of alcohol abstinence before initiating safety- TABLE 33 sensitive work. UTILITY (LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH) OF DIFFERENT SPECIMENS AS A FUNCTION OF TYPE OF DRUG TEST Test Blood Oral Fluids Urine Sweat Hair CONSEQUENCES FOR BACS 0.0200.039 Random Low Low Medium Low High There is considerable empirical evidence that alcohol nega- Pre-employ- Low Low Medium Low High ment tively affects human performance with any deviation from BAC 0.000 (Moskowitz and Fiorentino 2000). Consistent Postaccident High High Medium Low Low with this view, DOT rules require that an employee with BACs Reasonable High High Medium Low Low 0.0200.039 be immediately removed from all safety-sensi- Suspicion tive duties. The employee cannot return to safety-sensitive Return-to-Duty Low Low Medium Medium Low duty until the BAC has dropped below 0.020, and a minimum Follow-up Low Low Medium Medium Low period of time has elapsed, usually between 8 and 24 h.