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39 To deter employees from having BACs in the 0.0200.039 Greyhound Lines set its postaccident testing window range, some employers have imposed stricter consequences to 2 h, with drug and alcohol tests conducted at the same for those lower BACs. Of the companies sampled for this time. There can be exceptions, however, as if a citation is project, three impose these stricter consequences: Hallibur- not issued within 30 min of the accident or if location and/ ton, Continental Airlines, and BNSF. or weather prevent the employee from reaching the testing facility within the 2-h window. Halliburton is an energy company with employees and locations worldwide. Its policy allows immediate removal BNSF makes every effort to complete FRA postaccident of employees with BACs of 0.0200.039 from all safety-sen- testing within 4 h following the incident at a medical facility sitive work. The employees are sent home with safe travel where employees are required to provide urine and blood arrangements. The employees are also suspended from all samples. However, reasonable delays can occur because of duties and functions and cannot return to work for 2 weeks. railroads in remote locations with limited access points, rug- ged terrain, and, at times, severe weather conditions. Continental Airlines immediately removes employees with BACs in the 0.0200.039 range from safety-sensitive work. The employees are taken off the future work schedule. Employ- STRICTER FOLLOW-UP TESTING ees are reported to the SAP and enrolled in an EAP. The SAP and EAP, together, decide when the employee is fit to return to Currently, no fewer than six tests in 12 months are allowed work. If the employee is already participating in a last-chance for follow-up testing. Companies that elect to exceed those agreement, then this BAC range of 0.0200.039 counts as a requirements may increase the number of tests, extend the positive, which would violate the terms of the agreement. The duration of the testing period, or both. Of the companies employee is then terminated from the company. sampled for this project, two exceed the minimum require- ments: Halliburton and Greyhound. BNSF considers any alcohol test with BAC of 0.020 or above as a positive test and a violation of the company's drug Halliburton employees are given a chance to sign a last- and alcohol policy. Employees are immediately removed from chance agreement and enroll in an EAP after the first con- performing services and referred to the EAP. The company firmed positive result. If the employee signs the last-chance may extend a waiver of charges agreement on a first-time agreement and passes the return-to-duty tests, the EAP or positive and require that the employee enter an EAP. When SAP determines when the employee can return to safety- released back to work by the SAP and EAP, the employee sensitive duties. In the EAP, the employee is followed over a is subject to a return-to-duty test and follow-up testing as 2-year period, with no fewer than 12 unannounced follow-up directed by the SAP. Alternatively, if a waiver is not offered, tests per 12-month period (for a total of 24 tests). The tests the employee would be subject to a formal investigation and are conducted at random each month of the program. If at face termination. any time the employees test positive, they are expelled from the EAP and removed from the company entirely. Likewise, after the EAP is complete, if the employees ever test positive STRICTER POSTACCIDENT TESTING again, they are terminated with no chance of rehire. Postaccident drug and alcohol tests must be conducted within Greyhound follows a similar pattern. Following a con- a particular timeframe, typically 8 h for alcohol and 32 h for firmed positive result, the employee is referred to a SAP in drugs. Of the companies sampled for this project, four have the area and must sign a last-chance agreement to continue policies that shorten the postaccident test timeframe: Halli- with the company. If the agreement is made, the employee burton, Continental Airlines, Greyhound Lines, and BNSF. is subject to between 6 and 12 unannounced follow-up tests per year for up to 5 years. Currently, Greyhound has fewer Following an accident, Halliburton's testing staff and than 20 employees participating in follow-up testing pro- company officials are dispatched to the scene. The objective grams--0.02% of its total workforce. If any of these employ- is to test all employees, for both alcohol and drugs, within ees test positive again on any other drug or alcohol test, they 2 h of the accident. If for some reason an unforeseen delay will not be given another chance and will be permanently occurs, a 4-h window is accepted. With strict postaccident removed from the company. testing windows, Halliburton has experienced its lowest rates for injury and vehicle incidents in the past 2 years at under 0.75 and 0.50 per 200,000 work-hours, respectively NATIONAL DATABASE (Halliburton 2010). As mentioned earlier, only 48% of all motor carriers have Continental Airlines aims to test its personnel within 5 h of alcohol- and drug-testing programs in place, covering 89% an accident. Employees are tested for both alcohol and drugs. of all commercial drivers (Khan 2010). A 2008 GAO report