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48 by larger carriers in CTBSSP Synthesis 21 on driver selection report (Dueker 1995). The 1995 model curriculum was itself (Knipling et al. 2011). The one large company interviewed based on a 1985 FHWA OMC report. Areas of instruction for this study, Carrier J, believed that the systematic driver include basic vehicle operation and handling, safe operating hiring regimen it imposed on its subsidiaries was important procedures, special driving conditions, advanced driving in maintaining company-wide driver quality standards. skills (e.g., recovering from skids), vehicle-related nondriv- ing activities (e.g., pre-trip inspections), vehicle maintenance, nonvehicle activities (e.g., maintaining logs), passengers, DRIVER ORIENTATION, TRAINING, and driver fitness (e.g., alcohol and drugs). The current Pro- AND COMMUNICATIONS fessional Truck Driver Institute model curriculum (PTDI An organization's commitment to employee safety training 2011) is based largely on this earlier work. and other communications is a strong indicator of its overall safety culture and climate. Effective safety training has been In its survey and literature review, CTBSSP Synthesis 5 shown to have a negative correlation with occupational attempted to assess salient driver training needs beyond entry- injuries in a workplace (Huang et al. 2006). Comprehensive, level training; that is, for carrier finishing training or continu- behavior-based safety training increases company safety per- ing driver refresher training. The topic assessment also formance and safety culture. addressed potential training methods. The following candi- date training topics were addressed: A study published in 1995 by FMCSA's predecessor On-road speed and space management agency (Dueker 1995; FHWA Office of Motor Carriers Driving in hazardous weather conditions 1995) assessed the entry-level training of U.S. CMV drivers. Rollover prevention In the study, a panel of 36 experts reviewed statistics on the Night operations training received by CMV drivers and of curricula used in Tight maneuvering that training. The study concluded that neither heavy truck Emergency maneuvering nor motor coach drivers generally receive adequate entry- Vehicle inspection and maintenance level training. The driving and overall job proficiency Bus passenger safety required to earn a CDL is widely regarded in industry as well Truck coupling below the level required for reliable driving in a full-time oper- Cargo loading, unloading, and securement ational setting. Thus, the adequacy of driver skills and knowl- Driver wellness edge is a major industry safety concern. For example, improved Fitness-for-duty and fatigue management commercial driver training was the top recommendation from Management of work schedule and family time the 2002 International Truck and Bus Safety Research and Management of finances. Policy Symposium (Zacharia and Richards 2002). Driver train- ing was the focus of CTBSSP Synthesis 5 (Staplin et al. 2004), CTBSSP Synthesis 5 also suggested crash causation find- as well as CTBSSP Synthesis 13 (Brock et al. 2007). ings as a basis for driver training content. For example, the LTCCS (Starnes 2006) identified and provided statistics on This report does not focus on entry-level CMV driver the Critical Reasons (proximal causes) triggering large truck training; that is, the training that drivers may receive before crashes. This includes various types of driver errors as well obtaining a CDL. Rather, it addresses small carrier chal- as vehicle and environmental causes. Along with proximal lenges and activities involved in "finishing" training for new causes, drivers need to understand crash risk factors; that is, drivers ("pre-service" training) and in providing their expe- pre-trip and pre-crash-threat factors that can make crashes rienced drivers with continuing training ("in-service" train- more or less likely to occur. These were discussed earlier in ing). Safety meetings are another form of communications Operational Planning and Risk Avoidance based largely on that overlap with training in both their content and methods. CTBSSP Synthesis 21 (Knipling 2011). Also relevant to the current discussion is training that carrier owners and managers themselves may obtain to upgrade their In the UM survey of safe motor carriers, Corsi and Barnard business, technical, and management skills. This section (2003) reported that 71% of their small-carrier respondents addresses training and communications content first, followed required pre-service training (i.e., for new hires), usually of 1 by training and communications methods and media. to 2 weeks duration. Eighty-three percent required in-service training (e.g., refresher training). Many small carrier respon- Training and Communications Content dents (43%) believed the two training approaches had equal safety impact. Of the remainder, in-service training was rated The potential content of CMV safety training encompasses as having greater impact by more respondents (38%) than pre- all driver and other employee KSAs relevant to safe CMV service training (19%). The most frequent topics covered in driving. CTBSSP Synthesis 5 (Staplin et al. 2004) reviewed pre-service and in-service training included accident notifica- basic training content and curricula, including a detailed tion, defensive driving, dispatch procedures, driver discipli- model curriculum recommended in the 1995 FHWA OMC nary policies, federal safety regulations, HOS regulations,

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49 The first five survey questions related to safety problem North American Fatigue Management Program areas that also could constitute training topics. These were Instructional Modules Under Development Likert scale items where respondents rated the importance of 1. Introduction and Overview the problem on 04 scale. The average rating among 14 items 2. Fatigue Management Practices was 2.6, which might be regarded as a benchmark for distin- 3. Driver Education guishing problems of greater or lesser relative importance. 4. Driver Family Education The five items were: 5. Train-the-Trainer 6. Shippers and Receivers 1. Lack of basic driving skills among your drivers: 2.9. 7. Sleep Disorders (for Managers) 2. At-risk driving behaviors (e.g., speeding and tailgat- 8. Sleep Disorders (for Drivers) ing): 3.1. 9. Driver Scheduling and Tools 3. Driver fatigue/drowsiness: 2.9. 10. Fatigue Management Technologies. 4. Driver health, wellness, and nutrition problems: 2.4. 5. Driver personal, family, and financial problems: 2.2. injury prevention, pre- and post-trip inspections, and truck Training and Communications Methods maintenance. The vast majority of small company driver training was conducted entirely by company personnel rather Conventional Training Methods than outside parties. About 80% of small company managers In CTBSSP Synthesis 13, Brock et al. (2007) overviewed train- considered their company-based training to be "a strategic ing strategies and methods applicable to the CMV industry. safety investment." However, only 17% of small company Some advanced methods (e.g., driving simulators and skid respondents believed that their company "spends more time on pre-service training than do most carriers." For in-service pads) are employed only in the largest and most innovative training, the percentage was 25%. schools and fleets. The traditional, core instructional meth- ods of classroom lectures and supervised driving dominate There are no federal requirements regarding training for most carrier-based training. This training is often supple- commercial drivers before obtaining their CDLs; instead, mented by written materials and may be further enhanced by there is the performance requirement of passing the test. A the use of audiovisual presentations (e.g., videos). Supervised 2004 FMCSR does require, however, that drivers receive driving includes both road and range settings. In their survey instruction in four specific topics within 90 days of beginning of safe motor carriers, Corsi and Barnard (2003) reported that work as a commercial driver. The four topics are: (1) driver the majority of their small-carrier respondents required both qualifications (e.g., medical conditions), (2) HOS and fatigue pre-service and in-service training, and employed classroom, prevention, (3) driver wellness (diet, exercise, stress reduc- in-vehicle road, and in-vehicle-range training venues. Rela- tion), and (4) whistleblower protection. Total instructional tive to large carriers, smaller carriers made greater relative use time for the four topics is estimated at about 10 hours. In of in-vehicle road training, but relatively less use of in-vehicle recent years, many companies have voluntarily increased range and classroom training. their in-service training and counseling on driver wellness and fatigue management. In CTBSSP Synthesis 15, Krueger et al. Safety meetings overlap with training in both their methods (2007) reviewed corporate health and wellness programs in and content. These meetings, which often include managers, the CMV industry. These programs implement employee dispatchers, drivers, and other safety-related fleet personnel, training, communications, individual counseling, medical are a basic and useful means to promote and sustain safety screening, and other methods to encourage healthful behav- awareness within fleets. The SafeReturns study of top- iors (e.g., exercise and better sleep hygiene) and reverse risk performing fleets (ATAF 1999a) found that fleets held regu- behaviors (e.g., smoking and unhealthful eating). CTBSSP larly scheduled safety meetings, generally with mandatory Synthesis 15 reviewed a number of successful truck and bus attendance and paid attendance for drivers. Topics addressed driver wellness programs, although all were in larger fleets. include recent crashes or incidents, vehicle maintenance and A joint U.S.Canadian program, the North American Fatigue inspection, defensive driving, health and wellness, fatigue man- Management Program is developing a driver and carrier agement and HOS, winter driving, and nondriving topics such manager training system and website to support carrier-based as loading dock practices and hazardous material handling. training in companies of all sizes. The textbox provides a topical list of instructional modules under development. In the I-95 Corridor Coalition "Best Practices" study Most of these will be available both as web-based instruction (Stock 2001), 76% of responding carriers in the 1024 vehi- and as courseware to support classroom lectures. Drivers are cle range held regularly scheduled safety meetings, usually the principal instructional audience but some modules are for quarterly but sometimes monthly. Percentages were higher drivers' families, carrier managers, executives, or shippers/ for larger fleets and lower for the very smallest fleets. Eighty- receivers. seven percent of all their respondents rated safety meetings as

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50 being important to carrier safety. Most responding small car- small carriers, because its use greatly reduces the need for riers also displayed safety awareness posters and distributed both instructional facilities and expert trainers at remote safety-related letters, fliers, etc. locations. Essentially, drivers and carriers need only com- puters and online access. E-Learning The report notes further that WBI and other e-learning can be more interesting and engaging than conventional instruc- E-learning comprises various modes of remote web- and tion. WBI can provide graphics, video, and sound of the high- computer-enabled transfer of KSAs. E-learning encompasses est quality. It can be more individualized and provide better computer-based training, web-based instruction (WBI), and measures of success. Interactive e-learning can adapt the other similar terms. A 12-year meta-analysis of e-learning pace, mode, and content of instruction to meet the learning research by the U.S. Department of Education (Means et al. needs of each student. A well-designed WBI program tests 2009) found the following general advantages of interactive each student as he or she progresses through an instructional e-learning over conventional instruction: program and provides both corrective feedback and selection of the next appropriate unit of instruction. WBI is applicable Improved knowledge and performance for most topic to many different kinds of learning, but not necessarily advan- areas. tageous for all; for example, it does not work well for training Increased access with reduced travel time and expenses. multi-step procedures such as some PM procedures. Convenience and flexibility to learners. Sharper focus on required knowledge, skills, and com- Brock et al. (2011) cite a review by Dodds and Fletcher petences. (2004) that identified a "law of thirds" in its evaluation of More likely to be the product of a systematic instruc- WBI and other e-learning effectiveness in various settings. tional design process, including validation of learning Generally and approximately, e-learning reduces training objectives and instructional content accuracy. costs by 33%, reduces needed instructional time by 33%, and Eliminates variations in learning arising from variations increases learning by 33%. WBI is especially useful when in instructor knowledge and competences. personnel to be trained are geographically dispersed and/or Better spacing of learning (allowing consolidation of in remote locations. For these and the reasons stated earlier, knowledge between sessions). WBI is almost ideally suited for nationwide small carrier Reduced overall training time. training initiatives, whether government-provided or com- Economies of scale. mercial. One potential barrier to widespread use of WBI Better tracking and recording of trainee, organizational, in the CMV industry is the limited computer proficiency of and training system performance. some drivers and managers. Although computer literacy has greatly increased throughout the industry in the past decade, The advantages of e-learning are applicable to training in not all drivers and carrier managers have access to comput- CMV transport. It potentially offers much to drivers, who ers or feel comfortable using them. Another potential barrier often have extra time to devote to training by means of laptops for small companies may be high per-student costs. This while on trips (e.g., at stopovers or while waiting for loads), would apply in the situation where carriers pay a company but precious little time at their home locations. E-learning fee for WBI access but do not have enough employees to affords drivers the opportunity to both refresh their basic fully utilize it. knowledge and to acquire advanced and specialized knowl- edge on topics such as crash causation, hazardous materials Two survey questions asked respondents about training transport, longer commercial vehicles and other truck con- methods and media. Question 21 asked respondents if they figurations, and cargo handling and securement. Carrier man- used online training programs for drivers, other employees, agers, human resource managers, operations managers, sales or themselves. Just 35 of 111 respondents used online train- staff, dispatchers, maintainers, and others can also benefit ing programs; users assigned the practice an average effec- from e-learning offerings. In addition to ease of access, an tiveness rating of 2.4 on the 04 scale. Question 22 asked if advantage is that instructional content and quality can be stan- they used training media in-house, such as DVDs and Power- dardized. Conventional carrier-based training varies widely Point presentations. Here, 65 of 110 respondents answered in quality and comprehensiveness as a result of differences in yes, and they assigned the practice a mean effectiveness trainer knowledge, experience, resources, and facilities (Brock rating of 2.6. et al. 2007). Driver and other employee training is a major job task for A recent FMCSA report (Brock et al. 2011) focuses on the small company owners/managers. The Carrier E interviewee use of WBI to provide training in the FMCSRs. Although stated, "Go the extra mile for safety because it will come the training subject focus was the FMCSRs, findings from back to bite you if you do not. Do lots of training. Play by the the study apply to other knowledge-based instructional top- rules." Two case study interviewees noted the driver training ics. WBI has a particularly strong potential applicability to support their companies receive from their insurance carriers.