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55 Small Carrier: Low Turnover: (149 Trucks) (1%10%) Medium Carrier: Medium Turnover: (50499 Trucks) (11%50%) Large Carrier: High Turnover: (500+ Trucks) (51%100%) FIGURE 12 Simplified schematic of 1999 survey findings on carrier size and annual driver turnover rates. Based on Min and Emam (2003). rates in the range of 1% to 10% per year. The corresponding with the company. The Carrier B owner treats his drivers rate in medium-sized carriers (50499 trucks) was 11% to "like gold . . . I take care of them before I take care of 50% annually, whereas in large companies it was 51% to myself," he said. 100%. However, this rule did not apply to every company. Among small companies, those running longer trips (e.g., national truckload carriers) tended to have turnover rates CRASH AND INCIDENT INVESTIGATION such as those of larger carriers. LTL carriers experienced An important function of safety management is accident much lower turnover than truckload firms. Figure 12 is a sim- investigation, both for the purpose of resolving the accident plified schematic of study findings. in question, and also for preventing future accidents. When a motor vehicle crash occurs, managers are called on to inves- Min and Emam (2003) attributed the lower turnover rate in small companies to more personalized attention paid to tigate and document the causes of the crash and the extent drivers and more open communications. In addition to the of injuries and damage. This may include a visit to the crash truckloadLTL difference, the researchers found state-to- site (if feasible), completion of company forms and other state differences in turnover rates, perhaps reflecting differ- documentation, determination of fault/preventability, and ences in economic opportunity. Among drivers in the same decisions regarding corrective actions relating to the driver firm, those with tenures of six years or more were less likely or procedures. Short et al. (2007) identified five goals of to turn over. In other words, employment longevity begets crash investigation: employment stability. Employment with a small firm was associated with greater job satisfaction, but larger firms more Determine fault and preventability often had the financial resources to attract drivers with higher Determine appropriate actions toward driver compensation. The departure of older, longer-tenured drivers Learn lessons for future crash prevention from small carriers for jobs with larger ones was usually Improve overall fleet safety motivated by higher pay and/or benefits. Protect company from liability. Question 9 asked the safety importance of "Driver turnover When a crash occurs, drivers need to document as much resulting in an unstable workforce." Respondents gave this about the event as possible. Such documentation will directly safety problem an average rating of 2.7 on the 04 Likert scale, assist carrier safety efforts and may reduce liability exposure. putting it near the middle of the 14 items surveyed. Most companies have their own crash and incident reporting forms (or checklists) that drivers carry with them. Insurance Although small carriers usually have lower turnover than companies also provide standardized forms to their carrier similar larger firms, the case study interviews suggested large clients. CTBSSP Synthesis 1 (Knipling et al. 2003) includes variations among carriers. Carrier C is a regional TL carrier a list of post-crash information items for documentation by with six trucks; its driver turnover rate is less than 10% annu- drivers. ally. Carrier D, a short-haul TL carrier, also with six trucks, replaces approximately two-thirds of its drivers annually. As part of the I-95 Corridor Coalition Field Operational The difference in this case might be pay; Carrier C runs high- Test, Stock (2001) looked at five different carrier practices productivity vehicles (HPVs), which allow it to haul more relating to crash and incident investigation. As found with cargo and pay its drivers more than industry norms. Carrier many other safety practices in their survey, larger carriers B, a national TL lease operator, did not state a turnover rate were generally more likely to have established, prescribed but makes extraordinary efforts to keep its drivers happy and response practices following a crash or incident. Almost all