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57 that naturally generate more data are almost always more reli- other carriers' performance. None of the managers inter- able than those generating less data; for this reason, many viewed mentioned internally generated company safety mea- carriers record and address every reported incident or failure sures or benchmarks such as those in CSA, although many of regarding a driver or vehicle, no matter how small. The them did collect and monitor such data on their individual effectiveness of BBS in industry settings is the result of, in drivers. part, its practice of observing and recording many everyday behaviors to reduce at-risk behaviors and thereby reduce MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT accident and injury outcomes (Hickman et al. 2007). In an earlier section of this chapter, the general challenges of CSA provides a standardized set of safety metrics for car- business management, operational management, and safety riers and drivers. The seven CSA BASICs are primarily lead- management in small companies was reviewed. This section ing indicators of carrier risk factors. They include Unsafe deals with the challenge of professional development for Driving (mainly moving violations), Fatigued Driving (mainly small carrier owners and managers in the area of safety. The HOS violations), Driver Fitness (CDL, medical qualifications), safety-related competency levels and professionalism of motor Alcohol/Drugs, Vehicle Maintenance (vehicle roadside vio- carrier managers vary widely. Most were drivers earlier in lations), Cargo Securement (based on inspection violations their careers, and many also held management positions with or mishaps), and Crash History (crashes weighted by sever- other companies. As in almost any higher management posi- ity and recency). Each BASIC generates a SMS score for tion, however, the knowledge and competencies constitut- each carrier and driver, and most of these are leaving indica- ing a proficient worker or middle manager do not always tors of crash risk (Strah 2010). SMS scores are automatically transfer to success as a top manager. Consider the "generic" benchmarked against other carriers and drivers, providing, the- supervisor competencies listed in the textbox (from Bittel oretically, the external comparisons suggested in Figure 13. 1987). Most of these competencies are either unnecessary Unfortunately, most carriers do not have enough inspections for commercial driving or are different in nature for drivers and other CSA-related events to permit reliable carrier rank- and carrier managers. Many former drivers are deficient in ings (GAO 2011). As one would expect, this is especially true these competencies when they begin their own companies for small carriers. GAO (2011) provides the following data or are promoted to a management job. Ideally, professional sufficiency rates for carriers of various sizes, with "suffi- development for carrier managers would have training and ciency" defined here as having enough compliance data for mentoring by more senior managers. In a family-owned carrier safety ranking on any of the seven BASICs. business, mentoring comes from the older generation. The development process might include supervisory training, 05 power units: 5.7%. gradual expansion of responsibilities, close monitoring by 615 power units: 28.3%. senior managers, frequent feedback and guidance, and for- 1650 power units: 50.2%. mal recognition for successes. This ideal scenario is proba- 51500 power units: 65.7%. bly atypical in small truck and bus companies, however, >500 power units: 83.7%. because many of them are new startups without an organi- zational heritage. Survey Question 15 asked respondents to indicate the two most challenging CSA BASICs. One could consider the most challenging BASICs to also be the metrics small carriers regard as more important for compliance and continued oper- "Generic" Supervisory Competences ation. As was presented in chapter two, CSA Compliance Planning work Challenges, the top three items were (b) Fatigued Driving Controlling work (HOS), (a) Unsafe Driving, and (e) Vehicle Maintenance. Problem solving Question 29 asked if respondents, "track overall company Monitoring performance Performance feedback safety statistics (e.g., crash and violation rates, financial losses Coaching subordinates from crashes)." Of 110 respondents, 97 indicated that they did Motivating/rewarding so, and the practice was assigned a mean effectiveness rating Discipline/reprimands of 2.7 on the 04 scale. Managing time Oral communication In the project case study interviews, few interviewees Written communication articulated an approach to safety monitoring as systematic Self-development as that seen in Figure 13. CSA is the primary safety moni- Representing company toring "overlay" for the small carriers contacted. Almost all Employee counseling of the small carrier managers interviewed closely moni- Conducting meetings. tored CSA scores, which include both carrier safety mea- Adapted from Bittel (1987). sures (e.g., crashes and violations) and benchmarks against

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58 Many national and state CMV transport organizations Leadership development, offer professional training and related services to their mem- Developing management systems, bers. Some programs offer formal certification for managers Team building, completing their courses of study. Others offer a combination Strategic thinking and innovation, of education and management-related services. Programs Delegation, and include: Various specific techniques and skills. ABA Certified Travel Industry Specialist Program (www. In general, small companies are less likely to engage in management training and development than are larger firms. ATA Safety Management Council ( This includes both in-house training and training from out- NASTC Management and Safety Program (www.nastc. side sources. Small business owners with prior background com). in business education are more likely to appreciate the bene- North American Transportation Management Institute fits of management development and their businesses are (NATMI, more likely to be successful. Business failures are usually National Private Truck Council (NPTC) Private Fleet caused by structural problems such as under-capitalization, Management Institute ( poor liquidity, and insufficient capital; however, such fail- OOIDA Education and Business Tools and webinar ures are usually accompanied by a lack of management expe- series ( rience as well. Truckload Carriers Association (TCA) Truckload Academy ( Two obvious barriers to management development are United Motorcoach Association (UMA) Bus and Motor- time and cost. Solo managers rarely have the time to develop coach Academy ( all the necessary competencies to sustain a growing business. In addition, they are often by nature independent, autonomous, Transport manager professional development does not and/or overcontrolling. They may not recognize or accept the have to be formal or expensive. Participation in transport need to develop professionally, or they may prefer the status organization meetings is one way to acquire new knowledge quo regardless of possible lost opportunities. In contrast, suc- and skills. Some carriers have organized their own safety cessful entrepreneurs are open to both personal and business benchmarking groups (Knipling 2009). They meet several growth. They strive to create a "top team" to better cover the times annually and share information and ideas for improved range of management tasks and skills required and to allow safety. Any group of similar carriers could do the same. Car- time for themselves and other top managers to think and plan riers meeting with competitors must be careful to avoid dis- strategically. cussing cost- and price-related issues, because this could be a violation of federal anti-trust (e.g., price-setting) laws. How- Table 17 presents five stages of business development as ever, they can openly discuss safety management practices identified by Fuller-Love (2006). The table tracks the stages and learn from each other. of successful company growth, top managers' roles, predom- inant management style, and typical organization structure. Fuller-Love (2006) reviewed literature concerning man- As a company grows and matures, different management roles, agement development in small firms of all kinds. The article styles, and skills are required. A small business is mostly an looked at the extent to which management development con- extension of the owner; he or she is involving others in his or tributes to small company growth and whether a lack of man- her life work. As the firm grows, direct ties decrease between agement skills contributes to failure. The article also identified the owner and company employees, and also between the barriers to management development, including certain char- owner and company work outputs. Rather dramatic personal acteristics and attitudes of small company entrepreneurs. The and organizational transformations are required for a small review found that, on balance, management development company to grow successfully. programs are effective and beneficial for small firms. Five of eight studies reviewed showed positive effects. Document- Previous CTBSSP Synthesis reports have addressed car- ing such positive effects is difficult because the benefits may rier management development, including CTBSSP Synthesis 1: not be immediate or easily quantified. Effective Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Management Techniques (Knipling et al. 2003), CTBSSP Synthesis 12: One key distinction made by Fuller-Love is that between Commercial Motor Vehicle Carrier Safety Management business education and management development. Busi- Certification (Bergoffen et al. 2007), and CTBSSP Synthesis ness education, as one might receive in a Masters of Busi- 14: The Role of Safety Culture in Preventing Commercial ness Administration degree program, is broader and covers Motor Vehicle Crashes (Short et al. 2007). many specific courses of study. Management development is more job-related and involves a mixture of education, In the I-95 Corridor Coalition Coordinated Safety Manage- training, and experience. Key management competencies ment Study (Stock 2001), carrier managers were asked about taught include: their primary sources of safety and compliance information.