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65 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH This report has synthesized information on safety manage- and "judgment" sample of interested, knowledgeable indi- ment in small motor carriers (commercial truck and bus viduals, not as a representative sample of some larger popu- companies) in North America. The goals of the study were to lation, such as "all small carrier owners/managers." In spite (1) identify useful practices for safety management in small of these caveats, survey findings are revealing because of the companies, and (2) outline a logical and practical progression comparative information they provide. This includes the to more active and comprehensive safety management for perceived relative importance of various safety problems small companies as they grow. This chapter summarizes and perceived relative effectiveness of solutions. major conclusions relating to project goals and outlines some potential areas for future research and development (R&D) A total of 262 respondents (187 truck, 75 bus) completed on small carrier management. the online survey; however, the sample reported here was reduced to 112 (79 truck, 33 bus) by Question 34, which Small companies were defined in this study as those with asked about the carrier's "functional" size in terms of man- more than one driver, but with too few drivers and trucks to agement. To be included in the current report, respondents afford to designate a manager with the primary function of had to select multiple choice answer "c," "Company owner/ "Safety Manager." Further, these are companies where the manager. Drives less than 50% of the time. Performs most company owner/manager drives less than 50% of the time management and supervision tasks, including safety and and thus is primarily a manager. He or she performs most compliance." management and supervision tasks, including those relating to safety and compliance. The three principal information The first set of questions (114) asked about the impor- sources for this study have been (1) the project survey of tance of various small carrier safety management problems. small carrier owners/managers, (2) in-depth interviews with These employed a 5-choice Likert rating scale for impor- a subset of survey respondents, and (3) the research literature tance. The five importance levels were assigned values of 0, review. 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the data analysis. All of the items received overall average ratings of greater than 2.0 on the 04 scale. This chapter first presents a brief summary and recap of Therefore, all of the problems were considered to be "impor- major findings from the project survey. Next, it summarizes tant or greater." The highest-rated safety problems included findings from all project information sources on small carrier the following (question number in parentheses): safety performance, safety-related small carrier strengths and 1. Recruiting and selecting good drivers (6). advantages, and small carrier safety weaknesses and dis- 2. At-risk driving behaviors; for example, speeding and advantages. Then the chapter recounts effective small carrier tailgating (2). safety practices identified in the study. Small carriers can 3. Assessing driver on-road safety; that is, knowing how progress in safety by adopting more of these practices. safe your drivers are (7). Finally, the chapter identifies R&D needs relevant to small 4. Driver fatigue/drowsiness (3). carrier safety. 5. Correctly rewarding good driver behaviors and dis- ciplining bad behaviors (8). STUDY SURVEY FINDINGS Problems rated relatively unimportant compared with oth- The carrier owner/manager survey asked respondents ques- ers on the list included lack of training materials for drivers, tions about safety problems they faced, what safety manage- lack of training materials for managers, and driver personal/ ment practices they used, and the effectiveness of these family/financial problems. practices. Chapter two presented the survey methodology and results in detail. As with most surveys, this one con- Questions 15 and 16 presented the seven CSA Behavior sisted of questions that were either subjective (i.e., asking Analysis and Safety Improvement Categories (BASICs). for an opinion) or were asking for an objective self-report. A Respondents were asked to select the two areas representing more important caveat relates to the sample composition. the biggest and smallest safety challenges, respectively. For The respondent sample can be regarded as a convenience both trucks and buses, the top three items were Fatigued