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71 carriers are more likely to be active in national CMV Procedures transport organizations and conferences, and thus Set driving safety standards with associated proce- more likely to be reached by researchers. Carrier sam- dures and review them periodically. ples generated through probability-based sampling Run formal risk assessments based on accident tracking. methods would require greater resources, but would Clearly lay out insurance policies, accident procedures, reveal more about the practices of the industry as etc. a whole. Further, such studies could be structured as Set specific driver guidelines around trip times, trip case-control or parametric comparisons between car- lengths, etc. Set a strict cell phone use policy in accordance with rier practices and their safety performance criterion the law. measures. This would reveal more cause-and-effect Conduct regular safety checks and audits. relationships. Planning 2. Intervention case studies. This study's case studies Match drivers to journeys based on a driver's experi- provided snapshots of ten motor carriers and probed ence, safety history, training, etc. the views of their owners/managers. However, none Involve the drivers in planning optimal routes and involved the experimental application of new safety sequencing. management interventions. The previous section iden- Build breaks, peak traffic times, and local routes into tified 27 reported effective safety practices for small schedules. carriers. Many of these could be structured as direct Plan routes in advance; avoid busy routes when interventions and evaluated in small carrier case stud- possible. Ensure sufficient time in yard for safety checks. ies. These could be smaller-scale versions of an inten- Balance driver hours for even workloads. sive carrier case study by Murray et al. in 2009 involv- Stay away from `strict timed routing' to avoid added ing Wolseley, a large U.K.-based heating and plumbing pressure on drivers. distributor. This comprehensive case study classified Incident Management/Feedback dozens of company safety interventions that together Educate employees about the value of sharing incident/ reduced the Wolseley crash rate by more than 40% over accident information. four years. Ideally, intervention case studies would be Provide guidance and encourage incident reporting structured to follow one or more of the systematic, top- without blame. down approaches to safety management reviewed in Be willing to learn from accidents, incidents, and near this report. misses. 3. Driver selection tool validation in small carrier set- Emphasize what could be done differently in the future, not what went wrong. tings. CTBSSP Synthesis 21 reviewed driver selection Safety Communications methods of commercial truck and bus companies. Talk to an employee directly about a problem, do not Driver selection relies on tests, measurements, and communicate through others. other assessments of applicants. Testable, safety-rele- Communicate information on external hazards such vant driver traits include personality, attitudes, psy- as weather, roadwork, etc. chomotor performance, medical status and conditions, Focus on driving risk factors; for example, speeding, behavioral history, and mental abilities. CTBSSP Syn- tailgating, need for breaks, and seatbelts. thesis 21 cites studies of these factors and tests to assess Put out a newsletter 3 to 4 times per year to update them, but noted that little data had been collected on everyone on company safety. commercial drivers. Few studies provided the valida- Be approachable to talk about safety and act on good tion evidence needed to legally and ethically justify the suggestions. use of a test for hiring commercial drivers. Only larger fleets with more sophisticated HRM departments are likely to conduct test validations. Test validation stud- RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS ies with small carriers would need to aggregate data from multiple carriers to be statistically significant. Our knowledge of small carrier safety would benefit from Such studies, followed by educational outreach to the additional research. In many cases, this research would seek industry on how to use them, would help improve to validate tentative findings from cited research, but with driver selection in small carriers. more rigorous methods. Development efforts could focus on 4. Filtering for crash preventability in CSA Crash new training programs, software applications, and other aids History BASIC. One small carrier saw its CSA Crash to small carriers. Suggested R&D includes the following: History indicator jump from 0% to 44% as a conse- quence of two nonpreventable crashes. In one crash its 1. More representative study samples. This report, pre- truck was rear-ended, whereas in the other its stopped vious CTBSSP reports, and other oft-cited studies of truck was struck by a red light runner. A company carrier safety management have been based primar- safety audit by FMCSA would be necessary for the ily on successful, safer-than-average carriers. Such crashes to be removed from its CSA record. FMCSA

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72 and CSA recognize the need for an analytic filter that ways to overcome it. Factors examined might include would keep clearly nonpreventable crashes from con- initial costs, returns on investment, effectiveness, sys- founding company CSA scores. An effort is underway tem reliability and maintainability, driver acceptance, by FMCSA to develop such a capability. This would management use of system data, and potential liability be especially beneficial to small carriers because they concerns. Field operational tests conducted with groups are more vulnerable to large score shifts based on a of small carriers (as opposed to single large carriers) small number of crashes. could demonstrate technology practicality and effec- 5. Control for regression to the mean in Compli- tiveness. These tests could showcase both the direct ance Reviews. Two studies of pre-CSA Compliance crash prevention and OBSM features of safety tech- Reviews have reported dramatic carrier size differ- nologies. An entry-level OBSM approach for small ences in post-review safety outcome changes. Consis- carriers is to take their vehicles to a dealership where tently, the magnitude of post-review safety improve- they can obtain downloads of driving data from engine ments varied inversely with carrier size, suggesting ECMs. A demonstration study might familiarize small that small carriers are more responsive to these audits. carriers with this low-cost approach, provide training However, the same effect could be the result of regres- on how to read and use the data, and provide bench- sion to the mean, and the two studies did not appear to marking statistics to improve driver safety assessments adequately control for that. Similar studies under the based on ECM data. new CSA regimen and with adequate controls could 8. Open-access benchmarking tool. Small carriers determine the degree to which this suggested safety would benefit from a low-cost (or free), open-access improvement effect is "real." More broadly, the effort safety management benchmarking database. The data- could address the degree to which CSA and other base would consist of lists of specific safety manage- safety measurements are reliable for small carriers. ment practices and internal leading indicators of In a 2011 report, U.S. General Accountability Office safety (see chapter four, "Carrier Performance Track- (GAO) pointed out that a significant majority of small ing and Benchmarking"). Carriers could enter their carriers have insufficient BASIC compliance data to own data into the database and receive feedback on be ranked under the CSA Safety Measurement System. how their practices compare with those of peer com- 6. Aid to small carriers in reducing detention delays. panies. Confidentiality would be essential. The I-95 The GAO recently reported that, in a survey, 68% of Corridor Coalition Coordinated Safety Management surveyed drivers had experienced excessive loading Study developed an interactive, web-based "Safety and unloading delays in the past month, and that 80% Toolbox" to provide such benchmarking; however, it of these drivers reported that the delays affected their is no longer active. ability to meet HOS requirements. The report found 9. Web-based management training for small carriers. that small carrier drivers are more vulnerable to such Small company managers are less likely to seek profes- delays because their companies have less market sional training and development than those in larger strength to demand customer compliance with load- firms. This reticence is the result of a lack of time, ing and unloading provisions of shipping contracts. A money, and recognition of potential benefits. If well- 2011 analysis by Miao et al. estimated the true cost of designed and promoted, low-cost, web-based training delay to be $80 to $121 per hour for truck drivers and for managers could improve small carrier business their carriers. A typical detention charge is $50 per viability and safety outcomes. Successful web-based hour, with drivers receiving half of that. Small carriers training for managers might result in greater use of need assistance in dealing with this source of finan- web-based driver training in small companies as well. cial loss and safety risk. One way would be to publish 10. Wellness programs for small carrier drivers. This a detailed guide on how carriers can successfully pre- study did not explore driver health and wellness issues vent detention delays and receive proper compensa- in depth, and driver health was not considered by small tion when they are delayed. carrier survey respondents to be a top safety prob- 7. Technology demonstrations in small carriers. Vehi- lem. Nevertheless, prevailing evidence suggests that cle safety equipment was seen by survey respondents unhealthy lifestyles and associated medical conditions as the least important of ten safety management areas, are significantly more common for CMV drivers than and only four of 111 survey respondents regularly pur- for the rest of the U.S. adult population. Many larger, chased such devices. However, advanced safety tech- progressive companies have initiated driver wellness nologies can dramatically reduce crashes. Technology programs; however, they are less common among transfer studies could investigate the reasons behind smaller companies. Small carriers would benefit from small carriers' resistance to safety technologies and assistance in this area.