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78 GLOSSARY Assessment--Any test or procedure used to measure an indi- Feedback Principle--Knowledge of results consistently vidual's employment or career-related qualifications or facilitates learning and performance improvement. Applies characteristics (DOL 2000). to almost any kind of performance. Associated factors [e.g., in the Large Truck Crash Causation Haddon Matrix--Framework for understanding crash and Study (LTCCS)]--Human, vehicle, or environmental con- injury reduction strategies, consisting of three time periods ditions present at the time of the crash. Associated fac- (pre-crash, crash, post-crash) and three "actors" (human, tors are not direct crash causes, but are often viewed as vehicle, environment). contributing factors. Job analysis--Defining and describing a job in terms of the Behavior-Based Safety (BBS)--The application of behav- behaviors necessary to perform it. This includes job tasks ioral principles to industrial safety. Combines applied behav- and knowledge, skills, and attitudes [knowledge, skills, and ior analysis, behavior modification, quality management, attitudes (KSAs)] necessary for successful performance. organization development, and risk management. Leading indicators--Measures of employee attitudes, behav- Benchmarking--To compare company practices and out- iors, or incidents that might be predictive of future safety comes with those of other carriers (external benchmark- outcomes (lagging indicators). ing), or to track them in relation to past performance or to Law of Reinforcement and Punishment (Law of Effect)-- goals (internal benchmarking). Behaviors that are rewarded will continue and likely increase Correlation--The degree of association or predictability in frequency, whereas those that are punished will generally between two variables (e.g., height and weight) among the decrease in frequency. same group of subjects (e.g., drivers). Likert scale--Common survey technique in that answer Correlation coefficient--A statistic summarizing direc- choices are presented as numeric rating scales, often with tion and degree of association. Correlation coefficients five choices numbered from 1 to 5. Regression to the mean--In statistics, the phenomenon that, range from -1.0 (a perfect inverse relation) through if a variable is extreme on its first measurement, it will zero (no statistical association) to +1.0 (a perfect linear tend to be closer to the average on its second measurement relation). (Everitt 2002). Experimental studies of extreme groups Criterion--Any measure of work behavior or any outcome (e.g., very poor performing carriers receiving Compliance that can be used as the standard for successful job perfor- Reviews) should control for regression to the mean. mance. Relevant examples include driver crash rate, viola- Response bias--The tendency, likely strong in the current tion rate, tenure with company, or supervisory ratings of surveys, for respondents to be more committed and inter- performance as a driver. ested in the topic than those not responding. Because of Critical Reason (CR)--In the LTCCS, the human, vehicle, or response bias and other factors, the surveys in this project environmental failure leading to the Critical Event and thus should not be considered representative of larger groups to the crash. Simplistically, it is the immediate or proximal (e.g., all motor carrier safety managers). cause of a crash. Risk avoidance--As used in this report, planning and con- Detention--Loading and unloading delays beyond contract ducting operations in ways that minimize exposure to crash terms. risk. For example, planning trips to avoid urban traffic and Differential driver risk--Enduring individual differences undivided highways. among drivers in crash risk. Related to various personal Risk factor--Any prior factor--driver, vehicle, environmen- traits such as age, personality, character, medical conditions, tal, carrier--that affects the probability of a crash. other physical variations, and performance capabilities. Safety culture--Shared values and beliefs within an organiza- Diversion--Truck drivers or other motorists choosing smaller tion that establish safety as a priority and drive organization roads rather than toll roads to avoid paying the tolls. policies and practices. E-learning--Web-based and computer-based instruction, usu- Safety climate--Employee perception of a company's orga- ally involving multi-media interactive individual instruction. nizational atmosphere with regard to safety. Exposure--Vehicle-miles traveled (VMT), hours driving, Safety management system (SMS)--Plan setting out a or other denominator to determine crash rates. Exposure company's safety policies, defining how it identifies safety data are essential for determining relative risk for different hazards and controls risks, and providing for goal setting, drivers, vehicle types, and driving situations. planning, and measuring performance.