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8 that survey results will be misinterpreted or incorrectly cited tices and/or offered additional written comments), they could as representing larger respondent populations. Readers may be contacted to schedule an interview. Altogether, 15 respon- generate their own percentages; however, they should not be dents were contacted by e-mail and/or by phone. The 15 ini- stated as being representative of larger groups. tial contacts resulted in ten interviews. These ten provided substantial information on innovative small carrier safety practices, which is contained in chapter three. Likert Scale Numeric Means Likert scales are rating scales, sometimes with numbered SURVEY RESULTS choices (e.g., ranges such as 04, 15, or 17). Likert scales usually have word descriptors for each choice, or "anchor" Unless otherwise stated, all of the results are for all truck and choices at the ends and perhaps the middle. Two different bus respondents answering "c" on Question 34 regarding car- Likert scales were used in project surveys: rier functional size. Results are disaggregated for truck and bus respondents for those questions relating to areas in which truck and bus operations are markedly different. · A 5-point scale on the importance of various safety prob- lems. Choices ranged from "not important" to "extremely important." Importance of Various Safety · A 5-point scale rating the effectiveness of carrier safety Management Problems management practices. Choices ranged from "highly Questions 114 asked about the relative importance of spe- ineffective" to "highly effective." cific safety problems facing small companies. These employed a 5-point Likert rating scale for importance. The specific Likert scale choices in the current survey were not num- instructions were as follows: bered on the form seen by respondents; however, choices were subsequently assigned numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4) for analysis. Importance of Various Safety Management Problems Results are provided in the form of respondent counts for each choice along with the weighted arithmetic mean of all choices. Items 114 present various safety management problems you may face. Rate the importance of each problem. Extremely TRB's online survey service also provided these statistics important items are those with the strongest relation to crash automatically in survey reports. risk, and requiring your greatest attention. If you have no opin- ion, leave it blank and move on to the next question. Caution on Interpretation of Results The five Likert scale choices were as follows. The numer- ical values for each choice were not shown on the survey As emphasized earlier, the obtained survey sample should be form, but were used subsequently to tabulate results. considered a convenience or judgment sample that is not rep- resentative of any larger respondent population. Further, one · Not Important  should consider the nature of the questions when interpreting · Somewhat Important  results. There were three general types of survey questions: · Important  (1) questions about respondent opinions, (2) questions about · Very Important  specific carrier practices, and (3) questions about respondents · Extremely Important . themselves and their companies. Opinion questions were sub- jective and called for subjective, judgmental responses, mostly Table 1 provides the number of responses for each choice, in the form of Likert scale ratings or forced choices. These the total number of responses (N), and the weighted arith- responses should not be misinterpreted as objective facts. metic average or mean of responses (Avg.). Averages are Objective questions included those on specific carrier prac- rounded to the nearest tenth. Note that truck and bus respon- tices used (yes/no) and those about carrier and respondent dents are disaggregated for Question 10 ("Delays associated characteristics. The nonrepresentativeness caveat applies to with loading and unloading . . .") and that the question was all survey questions. worded somewhat differently for the two groups. Follow-Up Structured Interviews Note first that all ratings were heavily skewed toward higher importance ratings and that 14 problems received The last question of the survey form asked respondents if overall average ratings of greater than 2.0 on the 4-point scale. they would be interested in participating in a paid follow-up Thus, all the problems were considered to be "important or interview to discuss innovative fleet practices. The purpose greater." Relative ratings provide insights on those prob- of the interviews was to gather information and opinions for lems considered most and least important within this group. project case study write-ups (see chapter three). If respon- The highest-rated safety problems included (6) recruiting dents did volunteer, and their survey answers suggested they and selecting good drivers, (2) at-risk driving behaviors, were actively engaged in safety management (e.g., had a rel- and (7) assessing driver on-road safety. Problems rated rela- atively large number of "yes" responses under carrier prac- tively unimportant compared with others on the list included
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9 TABLE 1 LIKERT SCALE RATINGS FOR IMPORTANCE OF VARIOUS SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS Likert Rating or Statistic: 0 1 2 3 4 N Avg. Safety Problem: (1) Lack of basic driving skills among your drivers 11 10 14 20 54 109 2.88 (2) At-risk driving behaviors (e.g., speeding, tailgating) 3 9 16 28 56 112 3.12 (3) Driver fatigue/drowsiness 8 12 10 29 50 109 2.93 (4) Driver health, wellness, and nutrition problems 5 16 35 38 18 112 2.43 (5) Driver personal, family, and financial problems 7 19 38 33 12 109 2.22 (6) Recruiting and selecting good drivers 0 4 15 34 58 111 3.32 (7) Assessing driver on-road safety (i.e., knowing how 2 5 20 46 39 112 3.03 safe your drivers are) (8) Correctly rewarding good driver behaviors and 1 7 24 50 29 111 2.89 disciplining bad behaviors (9) Driver turnover resulting in an unstable workforce 6 12 23 36 31 108 2.69 (10) Delays associated with loading and unloading cargo 4 4 17 28 26 79 2.86 [truck respondents only] (10) Delays associated with loading and unloading 8 10 5 7 3 33 1.61 passengers and cargo [bus respondents only] (11) Non-driving injuries and other accidents (e.g., slips 5 24 27 33 20 109 2.36 and falls, cargo-related) (12) Not enough management time to adequately address 7 19 29 32 22 109 2.39 all safety problems and issues (13) Lack of training materials (or easy access to them) 14 23 25 27 20 109 2.15 for drivers (14) Lack of training materials (or easy access to them) 14 17 25 36 16 108 2.21 for yourself as a manager Grand mean: 2.65 (13) lack of training materials for drivers, (14) lack of training Respondents were asked to select the two areas representing materials for managers, and (5) driver personal/family/financial the biggest and smallest safety challenges, respectively. The problems. Figure 1 shows the same statistics graphically and in specific questions were as follows: descending order of mean importance rating. 15. In the CSA, there are seven Behavior Analysis and CSA (Compliance, Safety, Accountability) Safety Improvement Categories (BASICs). Which two Compliance Challenges BASIC areas are the biggest compliance challenges for your company. In other words, the areas where Questions 15 and 16 presented the seven CSA Behavior compliance is most difficult? If you are not sure, leave Analysis and Safety Improvement Categories (BASICs). the answer blank. (6) Recruiting/selecting good drivers (2) At-risk driving behaviors (7) Assessing driver on-road safety (3) Driver fatigue/drowsiness (8) Rewarding and disciplining (1) Lack of basic driving skills (10) Loading/unloading delays (9) Driver turnover (4) Health, wellness, & nutrition (12) Not enough management time (11) Non-driving injuries (5) Personal, family, & financial problems (14) No training materials for managers (13) No training materials for drivers 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Mean Importance Rating on 0-4 Likert Scale FIGURE 1 Mean importance ratings for 14 safety problems.
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10 TABLE 2 BIGGEST CSA COMPLIANCE CHALLENGES Behavior Analysis and Safety Improvement Categories (BASICs) Compliance Challenges Trucks Buses a) Unsafe Driving--speeding, reckless driving, improper lane change, inattention 29 13 b) Fatigued Driving--HOS, logbook violations 40 14 c) Driver Fitness--missing CDLs, medical qualifications 7 5 d) Alcohol, Drugs--impairment by alcohol, drugs, or medications 3 1 e) Vehicle Maintenance--failure to make repairs; adjust brakes, etc. 25 6 f) Cargo Securement--shifting, spilled, dropped cargo, size-wieght violations, unsafe 12 1 hazmat handling g) Crash History--frequency, severity of DOT-defined crashes 8 1 Total Responses: 124 41 16. Which two BASIC areas are the smallest compliance Table 3 presents Question 16 (smallest CSA compliance challenges for your company. In other words, the areas challenges) responses, again disaggregated by vehicle type where compliance is easiest? (trucks versus buses). As expected, these results mirror those shown earlier. For trucks and buses combined, the correla- Table 2 presents the results for Question 15 disaggregated tion between "biggest" to "smallest" responses across the by truck and bus (passenger carrier) operations. Results for seven items was -0.85. this question are disaggregated principally because choice "f" (cargo securement) does not typically apply to bus oper- ations. Also, roadside inspection practices are different for Use and Effectiveness of Operational Practices trucks and buses. Buses are typically inspected at their ter- minal locations (e.g., destinations) rather than inspected Questions 1730 presented 14 carrier practices and first en route. asked respondents to state whether or not they regularly used the practice (yes or no). Respondents answering "yes" on a For both trucks and buses, the top three items were question were then presented with a question asking them to (b) Fatigued Driving [HOS (hours of service)], (a) Unsafe rate the effectiveness of the practice on a 5-point Likert scale. Driving, and (e) Vehicle Maintenance. For trucks, those judged The initial instructions were as follows: least challenging were (d) Alcohol/Drugs, (c) Driver Fit- ness, and (g) Crash History. For buses, they were (d) Alcohol/ Which Operational Practices Do You Regularly Use? Drugs, (f) Cargo Securement, and (g) Crash History. Figure 2 For each of the operational practices below, please indicate yes is a histogram of the Question 15 "biggest" responses, or no whether your company uses the practice. If yes, rate its normalized based on the total number of responses. overall effectiveness using the scale provided. 0.4 0.35 Most Challenging CSA BASICs 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 Trucks Buses FIGURE 2 Proportion of respondent votes for biggest CSA BASIC compliance challenges for truck and bus respondents.
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11 TABLE 3 SMALLEST CSA COMPLIANCE CHALLENGES Behavior Analysis and Safety Improvement Categories (BASICs) Compliance Challenges Trucks Buses a) Unsafe Driving--speeding, reckless driving, improper lane change, inattention 15 4 b) Fatigued Driving--HOS, logbook violations 12 6 c) Driver Fitness--missing CDLs, medical qualifications 23 12 d) Alcohol, Drugs--impairment by alcohol, drugs, or medications 45 11 e) Vehicle Maintenance--failure to make repairs; adjust brakes, etc. 21 6 f) Cargo Securement--shifting, spilled, dropped cargo, size-wieght violations, unsafe 24 11 hazmat handling g) Crash History--frequency, severity of DOT-defined crashes 20 12 Total Responses: 160 62 The five Likert scale choices were as follows. The numer- Averages are rounded to the nearest tenth. Responses shown ical values for each choice were not shown on the survey for Question 27 (relating to detention charges for loading and form, but were used to tabulate results. unloading delays) are limited to truck respondents. · Highly Ineffective  Respondents used an average of 8 of the 14 practices · Ineffective  listed. The most frequently used were (26) PM (preventive · Not Sure/Neutral  maintenance) schedules, (28) reimbursing tolls, (29) track- · Effective  ing overall company safety statistics, and (17) conducting · Highly Effective  road and range driving tests with driver applicants. By far the least frequent practice was (25) purchasing advanced Table 4 provides the number of respondents reporting vehicle safety systems. This was followed by (23) use of using each practice. Table 5 shows the effectiveness ratings electronic onboard recorders (EOBRs), and (18) use of given by users of the practice. The effectiveness responses driver applicant questionnaire on attitudes, personality, or were fewer because nonusers were not presented with the rat- driving behaviors. ing questions. Statistics provided include the number for each Likert scale choice, the total number of responses (N), and the All 14 of the practices received generally high ratings weighted arithmetic average or mean of responses (Avg.). among users. Safety management practices used by a majority TABLE 4 RESPONDENT USE OF SAFETY MANAGEMENT PRACTICE Rating or Statistic: Yes No N Safety Management Practice: (17) Conduct road and range driving tests with all driver applicants 92 18 110 (18) Have driver applicants complete questionnaire on attitudes, personality, or 20 92 112 driving behaviors (19) Conduct regularly scheduled safety meetings with drivers 91 20 111 (20) Give drivers bonuses or other rewards for safe driving 52 59 111 (21) Use online web-based training programs for drivers, other employees, or 35 76 111 yourself (22) Use training media in-house (e.g., DVDs, PowerPoint presentations) 65 45 110 (23) Use electronic onboard recorders (EOBRs) 16 94 110 (24) Monitor individual driver fuel economy 80 32 112 (25) Purchase advanced vehicle safety systems (forward collision warning, lane departure warning, electronic stability control, onboard computers to monitor 4 107 111 driving, etc.) (26) Maintain preventive maintenance schedule and record for each vehicle 109 3 112 (27) Charge extra fees to customers for excessive loading/unloading delays [truck 62 17 79 respondents only] (28) Reimburse toll charges to drivers and/or provide îEZ Pass" transponders 98 13 111 (29) Track overall company safety statistics (e.g., crash and violation rates, 97 13 110 financial losses from crashes) (30) Participate in formal or informal meetings with your peers; e.g., truck or bus 73 36 109 association meetings or other gatherings
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12 TABLE 5 USER LIKERT SCALE RATINGS OF EFFECTIVENESS OF SAFETY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Rating or Statistic: 0 1 2 3 4 N Avg. Safety Management Practice: (17) Conduct road and range driving tests with all driver 3 1 13 48 26 91 3.02 applicants (18) Have driver applicants complete questionnaire on 1 0 3 11 5 20 2.95 attitudes, personality, or driving behaviors (19) Conduct regularly scheduled safety meetings with 1 1 27 46 15 90 2.81 drivers (20) Give drivers bonuses or other rewards for safe 1 3 11 28 8 51 2.76 driving (21) Use online web-based training programs for drivers, 1 2 15 15 2 35 2.43 other employees, or yourself (22) Use training media in-house (e.g., DVDs, 2 1 22 35 5 65 2.62 PowerPoint presentations) (23) Use electronic onboard recorders (EOBRs) 0 0 3 4 9 16 3.38 (24) Monitor individual driver fuel economy 3 0 22 44 11 80 2.75 (25) Purchase advanced vehicle safety systems (forward collision warning, lane departure warning, 0 0 0 2 2 4 3.50 electronic stability control, onboard com puters to monitor driving, etc.) (26) Maintain preventive maintenance schedule and 3 1 10 54 41 109 3.18 record for each vehicle (27) Charge extra fees to customers for excessive 2 10 19 20 11 62 2.45 loading/unloading delays [truck respondents only] (28) Reimburse toll charges to drivers and/or provide 2 5 23 43 24 97 2.85 EZ Pass transponders (29) Track overall company safety statistics (e.g., crash 1 3 28 55 10 97 2.72 and violation rates, financial losses from crashes) (30) Participate in formal or informal meetings with your peers; e.g., truck or bus association meetings 1 3 13 41 13 71 2.87 or other gatherings Grand Mean (unweighted): 2.89 of carrier respondents and receiving high favorable ratings were asked to select up to three items they considered least included (26) maintaining PM schedules, (17) conducting important; that is, having the least effect on carrier safety road and range tests for driver applicants, and (30) participat- outcomes. ing in peer meetings. Ironically, perhaps, the three least-used practices all received high average effectiveness ratings from Table 6 provides the results for Question 31, disaggre- those who used them. These were (25) purchasing advanced gated by trucks versus buses. For both trucks and buses, the vehicle safety systems, (23) use of EOBRs, and (18) use of two areas judged most important were (a) driver selection driver applicant questionnaires on attitudes, personality, or and hiring, and (i) vehicle PM. Other areas judged as rela- driving behaviors. Across the 14 practices, there was a nega- tively more important included (b) driver training and com- tive correlation of -0.31 between the percent of respondents munications, (e) scheduling and dispatching, and (c) driver using a practice and the average effectiveness value assigned evaluation. Note the very low priority places on (h) vehicle to that practice by users. safety equipment. A small caveat regarding these results is that all subjects were presented with these items in the same Important Areas of Safety Management order; therefore, any possible order effects could not be con- trolled. Figure 3 shows the same findings graphically, with Questions 31 and 32 listed ten general areas of safety man- the truck and bus responses both expressed as proportions to agement. In Question 31, respondents were asked to select permit direct comparisons. up to three items they considered most important; that is, having the greatest effect on carrier safety outcomes (i.e., Table 7 provides the results for Question 32, disaggre- crashes, incidents, and violations). In Question 32, they gated by trucks versus buses. As one would expect, the
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13 TABLE 6 MOST IMPORTANT SAFETY MANAGEMENT AREAS Areas of Safety Management Trucks Buses (a) Driver selection and hiring 62 27 (b) Driver training, orientation, and communications (e.g., safety meetings) 29 16 (c) Driver evaluation (i.e., violation and incident tracking, ride-alongs, covert observations 23 9 of driving, onboard computer monitoring) (d) Driver performance consequences; i.e., rewards and discipline 11 2 (e) Driver scheduling and dispatching practices 23 16 (f) Trip planning, routing, and navigation 12 7 (g) Loading, cargo securement, unloading, and dock/yard practices 10 0 (h) Vehicle safety equipment (e.g., technologies such as collision avoidance systems) 1 1 (i) Vehicle preventive maintenance 55 21 (j) Monitoring carrier CSA scores and other safety performance measures 11 3 Total Responses: 237 102 0.3 Most Important Safety Areas 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 Trucks Buses FIGURE 3 Proportion of "most important" votes for ten areas of safety management for truck and bus respondents. TABLE 7 LEAST IMPORTANT SAFETY MANAGEMENT AREAS Areas of Safety Management Trucks Buses (a) Driver selection and hiring 3 0 (b) Driver training, orientation, and communications (e.g., safety meetings) 8 2 (c) Driver evaluation (i.e., violation and incident tracking, ride-alongs, covert observations 3 2 of driving, onboard computer monitoring) (d) Driver performance consequences; i.e., rewards and discipline 18 9 (e) Driver scheduling and dispatching practices 16 3 (f) Trip planning, routing, and navigation 41 7 (g) Loading, cargo securement, unloading, and dock/yard practices 33 24 (h) Vehicle safety equipment (e.g., technologies such as collision avoidance systems) 32 14 (i) Vehicle preventive maintenance 2 1 (j) Monitoring carrier CSA scores and other safety performance measures 34 17 Total Responses: 190 79
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14 numbers of "most important" and "least important" votes for impossible level for many small companies. Thus, older each area of safety management were generally inversely vehicles will be used much longer. related. For trucks and buses combined, the correlation be- · We would love to try EOBRs but do not have the bud- tween Question 31 and Question 32 responses across the ten get. Funding these safety advances will be critical to items was -0.81. smaller operators. · Pre- and post-trip inspections [are very important]. · Most owneroperators and small fleet operators do a Written Comments good job of maintenance and safety but are lacking in the back-up aspects such as paperwork. I know owner Question 33 asked respondents if they had, "Other com- operators that do their own maintenance work but do ments regarding safety management in small carriers." The not keep very good records. comments received are provided here and are presented in four general categories: driver management, vehicles and cargo, enforcement and compliance, and general manage- Enforcement and Compliance ment. Some comments have been edited for clarity and context. · The problem I see is for small carriers trying to keep up with all the changes and regulations that are taking place. Driver Management · DOT makes judgment calls and cites violations about a loose strap or fuel cap (with no spillage). I have heard · It is all about having/hiring the right people who have of DOT writing a driver up for having a Gatorade Bot- the right attitude. Then monitoring their progress helps tle sitting on the floor board of his truck! keep them on track. · It is as if the new system [CSA] is geared toward · We only hire experienced competent drivers. They know killing the small guys. The big guys are winning and their job. small guys are fighting a losing battle, but we are · The most important safety feature in a truck is the driver. fighting . . . That is why we are very selective in our recruiting and · [Bus respondent] The biggest threat to safety is rogue try to be at the top of the pay scale to attract the highest operators. Companies such as ours, who are checked reg- quality driver. ularly by inspectors, are not the highest safety threat. It · Know who you are hiring, and do not make excep- tions to hiring good drivers. It will harm you down the is the rogue operators who do their very best to avoid road. inspectors [who] are the ones inspectors need to be · Our biggest company problem is finding drivers. looking for. We see their shoddy equipment and illegal · If you hire correctly, train effectively (not only at hire, operations on a regular basis. Why cannot enforcement but throughout employment), use onboard monitoring, officials see it? and set your trucks at 65, you will do fine in all depart- · DOT and DOD [Department of Defense] need to stop ments. This is provided you know what to charge to stay allowing people and companies to operate unless they in business. Safety does pay. are American citizens, speak English well, and have been · Driver training and CDL requirements for motorcoach inspected and pass all inspections before they ever roll drivers are very low in the United States compared with a tire on my highways. DOT and other federals create other developed countries (Europe). most of all the problems we have. · Do not get so big that the owner does not know every · We haul big bales of recycled cardboard. We get viola- person on payroll, and make it their business to person- tions for having a small piece of cardboard falling or ally check out every driver every day! Big companies blowing off the truck but we have never lost a load or are a big problem when they look only for income and had a bale fall off the trailer. not their relationship with those who provided it. · We do not over-schedule drivers and they are all owner operators. General Management · We are a newly established carrier that follows safety Vehicles and Cargo practices in our company very closely. · Many small operators do not have the financial re- · Vehicle safety equipment is more often than not too sources to have a separate safety department/individual. costly for small carriers to obtain in today's economy. So safety ends up with someone else who is already · The continual adding of expensive [equipment and] "wearing another hat(s)." As a result, small operators cost to new motorcoaches is pricing a new coach at an have to make decisions as to how their limited resources
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15 are allocated to maintenance, driver training, safety question used to identify respondents meeting the criterion programs, etc. for inclusion in the survey tabulations. This question asked · We utilize an outside consulting firm for our safety respondents to select one of four choices that best described management. This has proven very cost-effective, allow- their job and the "functional" size of their company. Table 8 ing us to keep a higher level of safety focus than man- provides a breakdown of responses. This study focuses on agement time would normally allow. those respondents answering "c." These are carriers large · Safety is an attitude, more than anything else. If the enough to have a nondriver manager (i.e., one driving less drivers know that I want them personally safe, as well than 50% of the time) but too small to have multiple man- as the public, they know I am concerned all around. We agers. Thus, unless otherwise stated, response statistics for have a saying that everyone hears at least once per all other survey questions in this report are limited to those month, "We hurt no one, and we don't hurt ourselves." respondents. If you focus on one or the other, the other should take care of itself. Everything in management is aimed at Question 35 asked respondents how many nondriver achieving our stated goal. employees they had (not including themselves). Table 9 pre- · In many companies, the owner wears many hats. Safety sents the response breakdowns for respondents of interest is only one and deciding where to expend your time and (i.e., those answering "c" in Question 34). resources is a struggle every small company has. Question 36 asked their years of experience as a carrier owner/manager, and Question 37 asked their total years of Information About Respondents and Their Fleets experience in commercial truck/bus operations. Table 10 provides summary statistics of their answers. Safety managers were also asked six questions (Questions 3439) about their company, their job, and their profes- Altogether, the 111 respondents claimed 1,972 years expe- sional experience. As discussed earlier in this chapter, Data rience as owners/managers and 2,747 years total experience Analysis and Interpretation, Question 34 was the critical in CMV transport. As a group, they are highly experienced. TABLE 8 RESPONDENT COMPANY "FUNCTIONAL" SIZE No. (34) Which best describes you and your company? Respondents (a) Solo owneroperator (i.e., you are the only driver) 30 (b) Driver (drives 50% or more of the time), but also operates other vehicles and employs other 47 drivers (c) Company owner/manager. Drives less than 50% of the time. Performs most management 112 and supervision tasks, including safety and compliance (d) Owner/manager of company large enough to have multiple managers, including a 73 designated manager of safety and/or compliance Total: 262 TABLE 9 CARRIER NUMBER OF NONDRIVER EMPLOYEES (EXCLUDING OWNER/MANAGER) How many nondriver employees? 0 1 2 3 4 or More Total N Number of respondents: 22 29 17 11 32 111 TABLE 10 SUMMARY STATISTICS ON PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE OF SM RESPONDENTS Statistic: Range Median Mean SD Question: (36) Number of years experience as carrier 1 to 50 16 17.8 11.6 owner/manager (37) Total years experience in commercial truck/bus 2 to 56 25 24.8 10.4 operations SD = Standard Deviation.
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16 TABLE 11 RESPONDENT FLEET SIZE Statistic: Range Median Mean SD Question: Number of carrier power units for respondents meeting 1 to 50 7 10.1 10.4 study criterion (i.e., Question 34 = "c"). SD = Standard Deviation. TABLE 12 SM RESPONDENTS' FLEET OPERATION TYPES No. Operation Type Respondents (a) Truck for hire: long haul/truckload, national 34 (b) Truck for hire: long haul/truckload, regional 28 (c) Truck for hire: local/short haul (most trips < 100 miles) 8 (d) Truck private industry: long haul, national or regional 3 (e) Truck private industry: local/short haul (< 100 miles) 4 (f) Passenger carrier: scheduled service 0 (g) Passenger carrier: charter 30 (h) "Other" 2 Total (N): 109 Question 38 asked respondents to state the number of truckload (LTL) was not provided as an option because these power units (i.e., tractors, trucks, or buses) currently in their carriers are rarely small and were not targeted in the survey fleets. Table 11 provides summary statistics of their answers solicitations. for these respondents. Specific survey findings are noted in chapter four, Evi- Question 39 asked respondents to select the truck or bus dence Review, as part of the discussion of various safety operation type that best characterized their fleet. The number management topics. Chapter five, Conclusions (specifically, of responses in each category is listed in Table 12. Less-than- Study Survey Finding), recaps major survey findings.