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24 In this report, the challenges of assessing the extent of the this project are summarized here. The issues can be grouped distracted driving problem are noted, given the differences in into the following topics. police reporting and crash data coding related to distracted driving. As to countermeasures, the need for extended public Examination of Company Safety Practices awareness campaigns are seen as important to increase pub- lic understanding of the risks of driving while distracted. The Hickman et al. (2007) examined behavior-based safety pro- potential value of technological interventions, such as work- grams common in some industries, but which have not seen load managers and LDW, is noted but viewed as having a wide use within the trucking industry. Surveys of motor limited impact at this time. The report concludes by issuing a carrier safety managers indicated that driver observation and call to governments to be proactive in setting policy, using feedback programs, plus ride-alongs, are most important. the current state of knowledge, as failure to act now could Short et al. (2007) examined the means of mitigating dis- make it more difficult to address the issues at a later point. tracted driving through an organization's safety culture. For instance, a strong safety culture may have internal definitions Zhang, H., M. Smith, and R. Dufour, A Final Report of and messages related to distracted driving, which may be part SAfety VEhicles Using Adaptive Interface Technology: Visual of training and employee communications. The author's key Distraction, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, point for this concept was that focus on the safety message Cambridge, Mass., 2008. must exist from top to bottom within the organization. Simi- larly, Network of Employers for Traffic Safety (NETS) (2011) This paper describes Task 7 of the SAVE-IT program, describes a panel discussion of model distracted driving pro- which focused on methods for identifying decrements in grams, which involved representatives from major private driving performance owing to visual distraction. Although fleets. Panel members also discussed the importance of top eye-based measures are slightly more accurate in identify- management buy-in plus clearly communicating policies, ing distraction than head-based measures, the latter option including consequences for disobeying. They also reported is more practical; that is, the necessary sensors for detecting on safety videos and post-incident coaching tools and met- eye gaze movement are more expensive and suffer from cer- rics as being useful. Lueck and Murray (2011) interviewed tain limitations (e.g., interference from eyewear), whereas safety executives from major carriers and identified the fol- head-movement sensors are cheaper and easier to implement. lowing common attributes of effective safety management: Because most severe visual distractions are likely to be cap- well-defined policies and strategies, engaged safety direc- tured by head movement sensors (i.e., sustained eye gazes tors, a willingness to test new methods and systems (such as that are farther off to the side), the researchers suggested active safety), training (and remedial training for problem moving forward with this type of technology. drivers), and direct involvement in developing company safety strategy. ZoomSafer Inc., Beyond Telematics: Extending UBI Data to Include Mobile Phone Use While Driving, 2011b [Online]. Available: http://zoomsafer.com/resources/#1. Employees: Hiring, Training, and Well-Being ZoomSafer describes both an active and passive approach ATAF (1999) examined the safety practices of award-winning to cell phone use within a vehicle, in the context of UBI tech- carriers and noted the following key factors: having satisfied niques. The active approach consists of UBI software resident employees, hiring the right people, training and monitoring on a smartphone (an "app"), which connects with a UBI device these individuals, and using quality control measures. Mejza et al. (2003) identified 148 high-performing carriers with in the insured's vehicle. The smartphone is automatically respect to safety and surveyed them as to their safety manage- deactivated when the vehicle is in motion, and incoming texts ment programs and practices. Regardless of fleet size, they and messages are automatically responded to by the applica- pointed to extensive hiring and training practices, multiple tion to indicate the user is driving. The passive approach con- methods for evaluating those practices, and driver rewards sists of integrating UBI data (including events during driving) for positive safety records. Knipling et al. (2003) examined with billing records from the telecommunications carrier for 28 safety management techniques, the most common of which the cell phone, so that events can be correlated with cell phone were tracking of driver's incidents, violations, and crashes; use. Although the active approach requires a smartphone, the regular vehicle inspection and maintenance; and hiring based passive approach works with any phone. on safety criteria. They also identified four safety opportunity areas: motor carrier wellness programs, predicting crash rates OPERATIONAL STRATEGIES AND based on past behaviors, behavioral safety management, RECOMMENDED PRACTICES and safety management professionalism. In a TRB synthe- sis report, Staplin et al. (2005) examined driver training pro- A wide range of operational practices have been studied and grams that have the greatest potential for improving safety. put into place to address distracted driving and some recom- Several recommended practices were noted, including mini- mended practices have emerged. Studies of most relevance to mum industry requirements for entry-level drivers, the use of

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25 driving simulators and skid pads in training, and multimedia ment; safety meetings; work environment; and accident and video techniques. investigations. Conclusions included the finding that satis- fied and committed employees are one of the keys to safety, and employees would therefore be included in important Cell Phone Prohibition Policies decisions and rewarded or recognized for their performance. Safety begins with hiring the right people, training them suf- In a highway safety guide prepared for states, NHTSA (2011) ficiently, supervising or monitoring them to ensure proper gave cell phone bans a low effectiveness rating based on performance, and using quality control program to mini- studies showing that cell phone use rates revert to the base- mize the potential for safety incidents. line after a year unless there is sustained enforcement of these laws. However, the Governors Highway Safety Asso- Governors Highway Safety Association, Distracted Driving-- ciation (GHSA) (2011) noted that cell phone bans, while What Research Shows and What States Can Do, 2011 [Online]. their effectiveness is not entirely clear, do have some long- Available: www.ghsa.org. term effect. They called on states to enforce cell phone laws once passed and to establish assistance programs to help This report summarizes distracted driving research to employers implement effective policies. inform states as they consider distracted driving counter- measures, concentrating on distractions produced by cell ZoomSafer (2011a) conducted a general survey of 500 busi- phones, texting, and other electronic devices. The report con- ness managers and noted that, although 32% of the companies cludes that cell phone use increases crash risk, but there is have had instances of crashes linked to driver distraction, only 62% have cell policies, with 53% actually enforcing it. no consensus on the degree of increase, and that conclusive For trucking, depending on operational focus, the occur- evidence does not exist as to whether hand-held cell phone use rence of distraction-related crashes was 41% to 53%, with is riskier than hands-free. As to countermeasures, the report 71% to 83% having policies on cell phone use, and 59% to found that laws banning hand-held cell phone use are effective 71% actively enforcing the policy. Hickman et al. (2010) initially even though the effect lessens over time; however, examined truck and bus driver data from a DriveCam and the laws do appear to have some long-term effect. At the same found that truck and bus drivers operating with a company time, it noted there is no evidence that cell phone or texting prohibition on cell phone use were 0.83 times less likely to bans have reduced the number of crashes. The report's recom- use the device, whereas driving in a state that prohibited mendations include that states enact cell phone and texting cell phone use while driving had no effect. bans for novice drivers, existing cell phone and texting laws be enforced, public awareness programs be implemented, and states assist employers to develop and implement distracted Section Summary policies. At the company level, clarity within the organization as Hickman, J., R. Hanowski, and J. Bocanegra, Distraction to safety culture and clear messages are important. At the in Commercial Trucks and Buses: Assessing Prevalence and employee level, careful hiring, thorough training, attending to Risk in Conjunction with Crashes and Near-crashes, Report wellness, driver rewards, and remedial practices when inci- No. FMCSA-RRR-10-049, Federal Motor Carrier Safety dents occur are all important parts of the puzzle. And, while Administration, Washington, D.C., 2010. the value of laws prohibiting cell phone use is not clear, at least one study has demonstrated that company prohibitions This study analyzed 12 months of naturalistic truck and on cell phone use do inhibit a driver's use of the devices. bus driver data provided by DriveCam, whose onboard safety monitoring systems record videos of drivers and data from Citation Summary kinematic sensors on safety-related events. One data set included data whereby kinematic sensors were triggered by ATAF, Safe Returns: A Compendium of Injury Reduction and nonsafety triggered events (e.g., driving over train tracks) to Safety Management Practices of Award-winning Carriers, serve as a baseline in calculating odds ratios. American Trucking Associations Foundations, Alexandria, Va., 1999. Truck and bus drivers operating under a fleet cell phone policy were 0.83 times less likely to use a cell phone, whereas This study analyzed interview and survey responses of driving in a state that prohibited cell phone use while driving safety managers in outstanding TL, LTL, private, and special- had no effect on drivers' decisions to use their phones behind ized fleets to identify various management "tools for success." the wheel (odds ratio = 0.97, ns). Because safe operations feed into financial stability, produc- tivity, and customer and employee retention, all aspects of Hickman, J., R. Knipling, R. Hanowski, D. Wiegand, operations were examined: hiring; training, and supervi- R. Inderbitzen, and G. Bergoffen, CTBSSP Synthesis 11: sion; bonus and awards programs; maintenance and equip- Impact of Behavior-Based Safety Techniques on Commercial

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26 Motor Vehicle Drivers, Transportation Research Board of techniques was practiced by 90% or more of the safety man- the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2007. ager respondents. This synthesis report documents various Behavior-Based Based on the survey results and reviewed literature, four Safety (BBS) strategies that reduce risky driving behaviors "safety opportunity areas" were selected for further research in CMV drivers. Several studies have reported that specific and discussion: driver health, wellness, and lifestyle; high- driving behaviors are significant contributing factors in many risk drivers; behavioral safety management; and safety man- crashes. agement professionalism. Several opportunities to improve safety were identified for each area: Motor carrier safety managers were surveyed to obtain information on which strategies were currently being used, as Driver health, wellness, and lifestyle well as their opinions on the effectiveness of those strategies. Motor carrier wellness programs. Findings from the extensive literature review and survey indi- High risk drivers cated that although BBS techniques have been widely used in Predicting crash rate based on past behaviors, and other industrial workplaces, comprehensive BBS programs Intervention programs. have not been extensively used in the trucking industry. The Behavioral safety management lack of more complete programs is most likely the result of the Self-management programs, solitary nature of the occupation and the difficulty in observ- Driver incentive programs, ing accurate, unbiased, safety-critical behaviors. Safety placards, and On-board recording. The majority of survey participants indicated that some Safety management professionalism type of observation technique was used to assess drivers' Certification of fleet safety practices, and behavior, including peer observation and feedback (63%), Certification of safety managers. ride-alongs (59%), covert observations (37%), and self- observation (32%). The highest rated BBS technique by Lueck, M.D. and D.C. Murray, Predicting Truck Crash respondents was a targeted training approach and education Involvement: A 2011 Update, American Transportation programs directed at specific driving behaviors. Research Institute, Alexandria, Va., 2011. Knipling, R., J. Hickman, and G. Bergoffen, CTBSSP Syn- Recognizing the responsibilities and roles that motor thesis 1: Effective Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Man- carriers can play in managing driver behavior, ATRI inter- agement Techniques, Transportation Research Board of the viewed safety executives from major reputable carriers to National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2003. identify effective industry strategies that could potentially help prevent and mitigate dangerous driver behaviors. The This synthesis report provides a summary of safety man- interview questions were designed to solicit information on agement techniques in commercial truck and bus transporta- safety programs, tools, and training strategies that effectively tion. Twenty safety problem areas and 28 safety management target identified problem behaviors and events. techniques were identified through a literature review, dis- cussions and interviews with industry experts, and sugges- tions from the TRB synthesis panel. Problem areas included Based on surveys and in-depth interviews conducted with both driver and vehicle issues, and safety management tech- these safety directors, it became clear that safety-oriented niques ranged from driver recruiting and selection to advanced trucking companies had several common attributes. These safety technologies. included: A questionnaire was distributed to fleet safety managers Clear, documented, and well-distributed policies and and other industry safety experts through several trade asso- strategies relating to specific driver behaviors and ciations and industry-related professional organizations to events; assess their relative importance. The top three problem areas Accessible and engaged safety directors and managers; for safety manager respondents were found to be at-risk driving a willingness to test and/or use different training tools behaviors (e.g., speeding and tailgating), high-risk drivers (all and onboard safety systems; and causes combined), and driver health and wellness. The three Direct involvement in the development or customiza- most common management techniques practiced by safety tion of company safety programs and policies. managers were continuous tracking of drivers' crashes, inci- dents, and violations; regularly scheduled vehicle inspec- During the interview process each of the carriers also tions: and maintenance and hiring based on criteria related emphasized that proactive safety measures, such as initial to driver crash, violation, or incident history. Each of these and orientation and sustainment training, are key lynchpins

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27 to ensuring that negative safety incidents do not occur. The distraction issues that could have played a role in the safety- value of these safety programs, however, must be comple- critical event. mented by remedial safety training programs that mitigate a problem driver behavior after a negative safety incident has NHTSA, Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety occurred. Countermeasure Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, 6th ed., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Mejza, M.C., R.E. Barnard, T.M. Corsi, and T. Keane, Washington, D.C., 2011. Best Highway Safety Practices: A Survey of the Safest Motor Carriers About Safety Management Practices, Fed- This guide was created as a reference to help State eral Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Washington, Highway Safety Offices select empirically proven counter- D.C., 2003. measures when addressing major highway safety problem areas, including distracted driving. As part of the analysis This study used federal safety ratings to identify 148 high- the authors describe the use, effectiveness, costs, and imple- performing carriers. Researchers then surveyed these compa- mentation time required for each prospective countermeasure, nies' safety management programs and policies, including citing the most recent and accurate literature, where relevant. detailed questions about carrier, driver, and vehicle-related practices. Most questions centered on hiring, training, and Empirical support for the ratings listed here can be found supportive or motivational activities. Some of their survey in NHTSA's guide (see Table 3). For instance, cell phone findings were disaggregated by fleet size into three cate- laws are given a poor rating because studies show cell phone gories: small (124 trucks), medium (2594 trucks), and large use among drivers returning to baseline levels within a year (95+ trucks); however, they all pointed toward extensive of a law going into place, unless the law was accompanied by hiring and training practices, multiple methods for evaluat- sustained, tough enforcement targeting violators. Likewise, ing those practices, and a wide array of rewards to encour- general laws and company policies are ineffective if they age drivers to have positive safety records. For instance, more simply send a generic "stay alert" message. Drivers already than 90% of good carriers reported verbally praising safe know what behaviors are not smart, but they will continue to drivers, whereas 72% used public recognition and 66% used occasionally engage in them unless they are strictly moni- cash rewards. tored and held accountable. Network of Employers for Traffic Safety (NETS), "Ele- Short, J., L. Boyle, S. Shackelford, B. Inderbitzen, and ments of Model Distracted Driving Programs," Sympo- G. Bergoffen, CTBSSP Synthesis 14: The Role of Safety sium on Prevention of Occupationally-Related Distracted Culture in Preventing Commercial Motor Vehicle Crashes, Driving, 2011. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2007. NETS panel members (e.g., ExxonMobil, Coca-Cola, and Johnson and Johnson) representing 52,000 fleet vehicles and The authors reviewed methods for improving safety cul- 1 billion miles driven discussed key topics related to address- ture through changes in an organization's safety policies, ing distracted driving, including cell phone use policies, imple- values, attitudes, and norms. Although the safety culture con- mentation and sustainability, technology, and critical success cept is much broader in scope than individual safety issues, factors. From a 2010 NETS benchmarking report, 93% of the problem of distracted driving can likely be mitigated NETS members have a cell phone policy in place, 40% have through an organization's safety culture. a total ban in place, 57% permit only hands-free use, and 2% ban only texting. When policy violations occur, 67% of The research indicated that an organization with a strong NETS members discipline the driver and 21% terminate safety culture will identify distracted driving issues through him or her. an awareness of organizational beliefs and behaviors and through knowledge of safety performance data and informa- Panel members discussed the importance of clearly com- tion. Once identified, aspects of distracted driving will likely municating distracted driving policies so that all employees be addressed in several ways within a safe culture. are educated and fully aware of the issue, as well as conse- quences for disobeying the policy. Buy-in and total support First, an organization with a strong safety culture might from top management is crucial, and good behaviors must create internal definitions and messages related to the dis- be reinforced to create a strong safety culture. Some useful tracted driving problem and disseminate such information strategies include using safety videos and safety information throughout the company. The distracted driving message available on the company's website. Additionally, compa- may be part of initial and ongoing training within the organi- nies can be prepared to deal with incidents by having a post- zation, and might also be found as part of regular safety mes- incident coaching tool (or metric) that addresses potential sages that are communicated to employees. It is also likely,

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28 TABLE 3 EXCERPT FROM NHTSA HIGHWAY SAFETY COUNTERMEASURE GUIDE within a strong safety culture, that members of a trucking Several recommended practices for improving driver company's leadership disseminate information and messages safety performance were identified in the report, including: to drivers on the importance of preventing distracted driving situations. The message should be delivered through other Implementing industry-wide use of standards put for- areas of the organization as well; for example, dispatchers may ward by the Professional Truck Driving Institute as a ask drivers if bills have been paid prior to extensive travel as a minimum requirement for entry-level drivers and for means to avoid cognitive distractions. Thus, the key point of the certification of driver trainers. this concept is that a safety message, such as one that addresses Requiring finishing training for first seat (solo) drivers. distracted driving, flow from the very top of the organization Substituting multimedia instruction materials to better and be pervasive throughout the organization. engage students and reduce training costs through dis- tance learning. Staplin, L., K. Loccoco, L. Decina, and G. Bergoffen, CTBSSP Introducing or expanding the use of driving simulators. Synthesis 5: Training of Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers, Expanding the use of skid pads to train beginning drivers Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, about stopping distances under different load configu- Washington, D.C., 2005. rations; to use different brake systems [including all anti-lock brake (ABS), mixed ABS, and non-ABS], and This synthesis report focuses on several training tools and to experience the consequences of driving on a wet sur- techniques used in existing driver training programs and face for handling and stopping the vehicle, including identifies those that appear to have the greatest potential for skid control. improving CMV safety. A review of available literature was Employing videos and testimonials by experienced done to pinpoint which training techniques work (and which drivers to provide entry-level trainees with a realistic do not) to adequately train CMV drivers to perform in vari- orientation to health, wellness, and lifestyle issues. ous situations. Information was also obtained from several truck driving schools and truck and bus companies to supple- ZoomSafer, Inc., Measuring Corporate Attitudes About ment the literature findings. Employee Distracted Driving, 2011 [Online]. Available:

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29 http://ZoomSafer.com/assets/Whitepapers/Survey-Results- dence of their employees having vehicle crashes as a result of White-Paper.pdf. cell phone distractions. Despite this, only 62% of the compa- nies had a written cell phone policy in place and only 53% of ZoomSafer, an organization that develops software to companies with a policy actually enforced it, with 61% dis- prevent distracted driving, surveyed 500 North American ciplining employees after a crash or incident and only 2% business managers to identify corporate attitudes and best proactively utilizing technology to manage compliance. practices related to mobile phone use among drivers. From the overall sample, which included long-haul and short-haul When focusing solely on trucking (long-haul and local/ trucking companies; construction companies; utility compa- short-haul), findings showed higher rates of cell phone-related nies; taxi, limo, and bus companies; sales and service com- crashes (53% and 41%, respectively), but also higher levels panies; home and business services; and government, they of policy implementation (71% and 83%, respectively) and found that 32% of all companies have knowledge or evi- enforcement (71% and 59%, respectively).