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56 APPENDIX D Motor Carriers Company Interviews TABLE D1 CARRIER A, LONG- AND SHORT-HAUL TL PNEUMATIC BULK Carrier A This fleet consists of 270 power units, which are applied to both local and long-haul Description services as a for-hire operation. The freight focus is pneumatic bulk truckload (i.e., flour, dry cement, etc., including hazardous materials). Interviewee and The interviewee is a former driver with 40 years in commercial vehicle operations. He Job Description was formerly on the safety committee of a major national trucking association. Degree to which Sees distracted driving as a significant safety problem. However, there needs to be an distracted driving is a understanding that there is a line that can be crossed. You don't want a cab with nothing safety problem at all going on, but you need to eliminate distractions that remove the driver's concentration from his driving duties. Removing CB radios, other radios, and sources of entertainment would tend to lull the driver into boredom and sleep. This opinion comes from experience as a driver. Does not advocate the use of cell phones, but notes there are sleep experts that say a phone call can raise the alertness of a dozing driver. He sees the need to keep the driver's mind stimulated. Primary sources of Personal tasks (e.g., eating and grooming) driver distraction Cell phone use including texting (behaviors as well as Reading maps devices) Searching/reaching for objects in the cab He reported an instance where the driver dropped an important document and crashed while trying to pick it up. In another case, a driver almost crashed while seeking to retrieve a dropped cell phone. Countermeasures put Company Culture in place by Company culture must be kept in mind. He had previously worked for a large national fleet/motivation chemical carrier and noted that his current small company culture was very different. What worked at the large carrier, including prohibiting cell phone use, would not work at his current carrier. His company has banned use of all personal communications, but not cell phones. However, he has been working to reduce the number of calls with dispatchers by better preparing the drivers ahead of the trip with items such as turn-by-turn directions. He believes that eventually cell phones must be totally banned for his drivers. Training He instructs his drivers, before getting underway, to look around the cab and ensure that all items are secure, which includes identifying any items that could hit the driver in a crash, and securing them. In-Vehicle Company Device His company uses the Qualcomm system, which has a "Can't use while running" feature, but the only function locked is sending messages. Drivers still attempt to pull up history, check hours of service, and other things. So a substantial number of text pages can be read on the screen. Monitoring Working with their insurance carrier, they are just starting a 90-day pilot of automatic video monitoring using the SmartDrive system. It will be installed on 75 trucks at two terminals. The intent is to use it as a coaching tool.

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57 TABLE D1 (continued) Driver Observations Company policy is that every terminal manager must observe 20% of his drivers every month; however, there's not enough staff for driving observations. SmartDrive provides a measurement system to address the staff shortfall. Driver Coaching When crashes occur, the policy calls for an investigation that includes hard braking events recorded by Qualcomm. A discussion is held as to what happened in the event. If a third instance occurs, the driver must meet with the manager and describe what happened in a signed written statement. On a fourth instance, they look closely at data, such as following distances, for the purpose of re-training. If further instances occur, there can be suspension or firing. This policy has been in place for two years. How measures were Generally, there is always resistance to put new things in place; however, over time communicated to drivers come to accept them. drivers, and their responses He has been very thorough introducing the drivers to video monitoring, but "drivers don't like change." He tells them that the system only records incidents and still some say "I don't like being watched all the time." He sees such misconceptions as a fact of life. Monitoring is a "bad word" in his company. Measures of success Quantified measures are important. They rely on Qualcomm data to identify hard braking and benchmarks events. Video monitoring data are more related to distraction. Using Qualcomm data, they have documented a 75% reduction in hard braking events. The Qualcomm unit records two levels of braking events; drivers are allowed four per month for the lesser events. He believes these data have made his drivers better drivers. Additional comments Policymakers should first define the driver distraction situation to give the industry greater clarity. He also cautions against FMCSA overreacting (i.e., "don't make the cab so quiet that you put the driver to sleep"). For instance, CB radios may be an easy target for prohibition, but in his mind there is a big difference between a cell phone and a CB radio. The CB radio is relevant to the road situation. He would hate to see radios or light entertainment forbidden in trucks. The survey was very good, covering the issues well. TABLE D2 CARRIER B, LONG- AND SHORT-HAUL PACKAGE DELIVERY Carrier B Large carrier with more than 30,000 trucks operating on a for-hire basis for short- and Description long-haul service. This includes 2,700 tractors and the rest are pickup and delivery vehicles. The freight includes hazardous materials. Interviewee and The interviewee has 26 years in commercial vehicle operations and is focused 100% on Job Description safety management. Degree to which He called distraction "a bigger problem than we know." He sees a cell phone in every distracted driving is a vehicle, not just trucks. A cell phone is one thing, but a smart phone is worse, as it is "too safety problem tempting" to read those new e-mails. Primary sources of Passenger interactions driver distraction Personal tasks (e.g., eating and grooming) (behaviors as well as Cell phone use including texting devices) Reading maps Searching/reaching for objects in the cab Personal electronic devices Onboard entertainment systems Job-related devices Radios can be a distraction as well; these are in their tractors but not pickup vehicles. (continued on next page)

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58 TABLE D2 (continued) Countermeasures put Electronic Devices in place by They use Automatic On-Board Recorders (AOBRs) in their tractors, which communicate fleet/motivation by voice and are voice-activated. There is a "big button" to push to tell dispatch "I'm driving, don't call my phone right now." Their policy is "you can't play with anything" while operating the vehicle. The policy refers to electronic devices and does not spell out specific device names or types. He notes that this policy extends to anytime the driver is at the controls of a truck, even if they are stopped at a traffic light, for instance. For their smaller pickup and delivery trucks they use a pad computer that "gives us fits." In earlier times, when the dispatch computer was hardwired in the cab, they could implement a blanking system activated by engine or speedometer data, shutting off the screen with movement. With the pad computer, because it is not hardwired, they can't control when the driver uses it. They would like to disable it when it senses motion but they aren't there yet. They don't even want the driver using the device when walking due to the injury potential. Training Training methods include presentations on the danger of distraction, as well as safety posters on distraction placed in company facilities. Safety observations Field safety staff does a set number of observations per month, as do operations managers. Both good and bad practices can be observed, and in particular this process allows them to recognize drivers for good practices. For instance, an experienced manager can tell if a driver routinely uses the seat belt just from observation of them putting it on during a check ride. Any employee can observe and report on a driver anywhere. In cities where his company has a large corporate presence this can be effective; the drivers know they're watching. Video Monitoring He would like to implement a video monitoring service such as DriveCam, but their legal department has concerns. He believes that with video monitoring, the crash rate would "drop like a rock." Related Health Policies Since the early 1990s they have had a "no smoking in vehicle" rule, which started as a health initiative and is now seen as relevant to distraction. How measures were From a driver standpoint, if video monitoring were implemented he would remind them communicated to that almost all companies have cameras in their buildings, so "what's the difference?" drivers, and their responses Measures of success The overall fleet crash rate is their key measure of effectiveness. They examine and benchmarks accident type--striking vehicle ahead, run off road, and intersection crashes are seen as relevant to distraction. When crashes happen, they use EOBR data to identify hard braking/acceleration. They also look at these data every quarter for every driver. Coaching discussions are held based on what the data reveals. Additional comments Regarding insurance, they are self-insured, so insurance is not a direct influence; it is all about loss prevention. Government has started in the right direction. Should they hold company responsible for breaking a driver distraction law? Yes--but they should also hold the driver responsible. The $2,750 texting fine is a good start. Enforcement matters.

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59 TABLE D2 (continued) But how far should government go? All trucking companies have dispatching--should they be policed as well with regard to calling drivers? It is difficult to place strong prohibitions on CMV drivers alone and not the general public--if distraction is dangerous for any driver it is dangerous for every driver. He noted that law enforcement vehicles set particularly bad examples regarding distraction, with all the equipment that the driver interacts with in their vehicles. TABLE D3 CARRIER C, LONG-HAUL TL BULK Carrier C This is a for-hire long-haul carrier with 145 power units. The freight carried is primarily Description bulk/tankers, including hazmat. Interviewee and The interviewee has been a manager in commercial vehicle operations for 15 years, with Job Description 50% of his time spent on safety issues. Degree to which There have always been distractions when driving and there are more of them now; we are distracted driving is a adding to the problem by trying to address it. It is an ongoing issue that requires safety problem continued attention. It is incumbent on every fleet to find the equipment and practices to address their own specifics. It is a continually changing issue and "it ain't going away." Primary sources of "Electronic devices, both personal and company-provided, only add to the problems of driver distraction driver distractions." (behaviors as well as devices) Personal tasks (e.g., eating) Cell phone use including texting Reading maps Searching/reaching for objects in the cab Personal electronic devices (e.g., mobile phone, hand-held or hands-free) Onboard entertainment systems Job-related devices Aftermarket active safety systems They use forward collision warning, lane departure warning, and roll stability systems to address unsafe driving overall. However, "every new piece you add is a shiny light and can be a distraction." Even adjusting a seat can be a distraction. Countermeasures Countermeasures are only effective as part of a continuing overall program to monitor, put in place by report, and review. fleet/motivation They have no specific policy about distracted driving. They discourage the use of cell phones while driving but do not prohibit them. They don't have that much authority. They ask drivers to be professional, adult, and responsible and have to rely on them. There is no way to ensure compliance through edicts. Electronic Monitoring They have electronic systems on their vehicles and are trialing others. They monitor, record, and tabulate all information from trucks to "read" a driver's habits. They review ECM data; the most critical are hard braking events plus speed. They have data to prove these are good measures. What the driver says is important too. They do not have systems in place to directly measure driver distraction. The most related system is lane departure warning; second, hard braking. Following distance is also telling. On a quarterly basis, they review findings with drivers individually, and the drivers adjust their habits. Terminations are not specific to distracted driving. (continued on next page)

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60 TABLE D3 (continued) Hiring and Training Discussions about cell phone policy are a starting point to discuss other distraction factors. They are a member of DriverSmart Virginia whose focus includes driver distraction. Hiring the right people is the number one factor and training can make them better. In hiring, they examine their driving record, work history, and online driver profile. The ultimate decision is with the person doing the hiring. How measures were He contrasted his operation with bigger fleets--they can have hard policies since they communicated to don't know their drivers, but how can they really enforce them? For him, "I can put my drivers, and their arms around all my drivers--I know them." The personal touch makes for a culture responses where they rely on their driver's good judgment. He identifies trends and discusses with drivers as needed. He has seen one or two of those types of information exchange focus on distracted driving. Measures of success They are convinced that data on hard braking, speed, and lane departures are good and benchmarks measures. Additional comments They are insured by an outside carrier and recently received a safety award from them. They set premiums based on empirical data rather than the presence of particular types of safety equipment. The less government, the happier he is: "put the rules in play, get out of the way." Fleet operations vary significantly depending on size, type of freight, and vehicle configurations; it is difficult to set broad policies. TABLE D4 CARRIER D, SHORT-HAUL GASOLINE DELIVERY Carrier D This carrier is a private fleet with 200 power units, which specializes in local gasoline Description delivery. Interviewee and The interviewee has 23 years experience in commercial vehicle operations, including Job Description 16 years as a manager; 75% of his time is spent on safety matters. Degree to which Technology has created the issue and truly needs to assist in solving this problem. Cell distracted driving is a phones are of particular interest for safe driving. Monitoring drivers for these distractions safety problem is certainly possible; however, it becomes an issue with big brother watching over a driver. As a private fleet with low turnover, the company culture will suffer if the right balance between monitoring, safety, and trust is not achieved. Primary sources of Personal tasks (e.g., eating and grooming) driver distraction Cell phone use including texting (behaviors as well as Reading maps devices) GPS navigation systems Searching/reaching for objects in the cab Personal electronic devices (e.g., mobile phone, hand-held or hands-free) Onboard entertainment systems Job-related devices Aftermarket active safety systems Writing down state line crossings Disagreed driver distraction comes from job-related electronics, because in his fleet with onboard computer they have no function when truck is in motion; so not an issue. Countermeasures Internally we need to ensure that the dispatch/operations department provides the driver put in place by with the highest quality data available to minimize any distractions from that end of the fleet/motivation operation. Devices Company policy is that no additional electronics are allowed in the vehicle without approval. They do allow cell phones.

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61 TABLE D4 (continued) Regarding satellite radio, they chose to not allow drivers to install units; instead the fleet assessed it and defined their own installation approach. They didn't trust driver installations. Drivers are not allowed to install or use navigation systems. He notes monitoring of drivers is difficult and he would "love" to use cameras, but they are somewhat of a "big brother" measure. He would also like to have some device to disable electronic devices. He has examined such "cell phone disablers;" they don't jam the signal, they "sniff it" and if the vehicle is moving, any cell phone or texting signal is detected and logged. This function in principal is great--he would use it. There would be a real benefit to jam the signal, in a limited area within the cab. Training Upon hiring they review policies with drivers and explain the basis of the policies. For the driver pool, in an ongoing manner they maintain awareness with posters, monthly driver meetings, and videos. They also keep them up-to-date on state laws. Coaching In event of an incident or infraction, there is a discussion with a manager and counseling. A plan for improvement is discussed, as well as why to do this. Drivers are "close" to termination with two infractions and on the third time probably terminated. How measures were Infractions affect the driver's safety bonus, which he sees as an important element of communicated to gaining compliance with company policies. Drivers are paid the bonus quarterly, drivers, and their anywhere from $600/quarter to $1,350/quarter, depending on tenure. If there is a safety responses incident in the areas of safe driving, safe loading, or unloading, the bonus is decremented. Their earnings are directly affected by safety incidents. As to the company safety culture, they have low driver turnover and seek to maintain a feeling of trust. In this context, "checking on drivers" is a challenge. He noted that in (another) smaller fleet within their company group SmartDrive video monitoring was implemented. Within that fleet, misconceptions abounded as to "always being watched." Within his fleet, despite thorough explanations and regular updates, his drivers objected to the concept. His view is that misconceptions are a given--it doesn't matter how much you explain. On the other hand, drivers are acclimated to information coming from onboard systems (i.e., hard braking events, speeding); they have no objections here. As to a cell phone disabler device, he has no hesitation to put something in the cab that prevents drivers from doing something they shouldn't be doing anyway. Measures of success They examine the crash rate, the driving complaint rate, and the incidents referred to and benchmarks above. He notes these are all lagging indicators but "that's just the way it is." Also, managers observe their drivers while they are driving to check for policy violations. Additional comments Overall, if drivers are provided accurate feedback they will then adjust their habits. Provided with feedback that is only marginally correct they will only become frustrated and more distracted. I also believe that an integrated all-in-one system would be better than the one-off systems that exist today (such as one system for speeding, one for lane departure, one for following distance, etc.). Government could do more to increase public awareness campaigns about distracted driving. Messages need to hit home--it can happen to you. These campaigns should show what simple distractions can lead to and include the emotional aspects of crashes. Communication with driver's families is also important. He is not opposed to any enforcement elements: "the more people out there looking for it, the better." There are no anti-cell phone laws on the books in states where they run.

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62 TABLE D5 CARRIER E, LONG-HAUL TL BULK TANKER Carrier E This fleet consists of 220 power units hauling bulk tankers in a for-hire long-haul Description operation; 40% of the material is petroleum and the rest is chemicals in a fully hazmat operation. The vehicles are speed governed. Interviewee and A former driver, the interviewee has 36 years experience in commercial vehicle Job Description operations, including 29 years as a manager; 80% of his time is spent on safety matters. Degree to which Driver distraction is a serious problem. From his office window, he watches his drivers distracted driving is a on the phone as they leave the pipeline loading area. safety problem When he was a driver, it was CB radio. But CB radio was not a problem; drivers could drop the microphone when needed. It didn't distract; however, phones are distracting, because you have to look at the phone to make a connection. Also, talking on the CB radio is a "looser" conversation and thus has less impact on driving. Primary sources of Cell phone use including texting driver distraction GPS navigation systems (behaviors as well as Searching/reaching for objects in the cab devices) Personal electronic devices (mobile phone, hand-held or hands-free) Onboard entertainment systems Job-related devices Countermeasures His fleet uses the Qualcomm in all trucks. Earlier configurations were a distraction but put in place by the current systems are configured so that they cannot be activated while the vehicle is in fleet/motivation motion. In fact the parking brake has to be set to use the system or even bring up the display. If a message comes through while the vehicle is in motion, the driver has the option for it to be relayed by voice through the vehicle speakers. This way the driver doesn't have to stop to hear job-related messages. He is very satisfied with this approach. Cell phone use is forbidden; however, drivers are not complying. He is "on" his drivers frequently in this regard. When drivers call him, he asks if they are driving; they may say they are talking via Bluetooth; he says he will not talk to them until they pull over. The dispatch office is instructed to do this as well. However, this policy is virtually impossible to enforce. In responding to a question about cell phone lockout devices offered by some vendors, he noted that he hasn't looked at this and cost would be an issue. Also, there would be concerns about the company taking steps to modify the personal device of an employee, as it might be damaged. Vehicle data are monitored in terms of hard braking and stability control events. To get five hard braking events within 2 weeks is out of the norm. He finds most of these are low speed events (1015 mph) as the vehicle approaches a stop sign; they are very rarely high speed. He also noted that the tanker is so light when empty that it is easy to lock up the brakes. Is this vehicle data useful to assessing distracted driving? No, it is more of a speed issue. He does not see a link between the vehicle data available to him and driver distraction. He also noted the role of the company safety culture, including recruiting. How measures were He sees the issue as "manageable" right now. If it gets to be a problem, he would take communicated to some action with employees. For instance, if a driver was ticketed for cell use by state drivers, and their police, he would make an example in the employee newsletter (without identifying the response individual). Since the newsletter goes to the driver's home addresses, family members will see it as well. He feels this is helpful to motivate family members to help reinforce his message on company policy in the newsletter. His fleet uses both employee drivers and owneroperators. He doesn't see a significant difference between them regarding company policy; they generally comply. Measures of success As noted, he sees the issue as manageable at this time. Has he seen any increase in and benchmarks crashes based on cell phone use? No, crashes are down and from his perspective crashes come from being too used to the roadway; i.e., complacency.

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63 TABLE D5 (continued) Additional comments His fleet is self-insured to a certain limit, and they have worked with the same insurer for 40 years, which is a "good relationship." He drafted language re cell phone usage and sent it to them, which the insurer received positively. In this case the fleet took the initiative, not the insurer. As to state laws prohibiting cell phone use, these are not a deterrent. States need to start enforcing the laws in place, whether for trucks, cars, or bicycles. They should be aggressive as has been done with DUI, where progress has been made. In the Midwest where his office is located, they are not very aggressive about driver distraction. Nationally, he notes there is more signage in the East, especially New England. Here, enforcement is aggressive and he thinks this is great. He believes his drivers comply with the laws there. Also, cell phone prohibitions should be a primary offense, not secondary, as is the case in his area. As a hazmat carrier, they see themselves as a target for new regulations. He is "fine with that." As to government actions in general, he is always seeing articles about distracted driving and feels people are starting to get saturated and ignore it. TABLE D6 CARRIER F, LONG- AND SHORT-HAUL HAZMAT Carrier F This fleet consists of 328 power units hauling hazardous materials for both short and long Description haul. Interviewee and A former driver, the interviewee has 43 years experience in commercial vehicle Job Description operations, including 32 years as a manager; 75% of his time is spent on safety matters. Degree to which Sees driver distraction from all sources (internal and external) as a significant safety issue distracted driving is a for his fleet operations. safety problem Primary sources of Passenger interactions driver distraction Personal (e.g., eating and grooming) (behaviors as well as Map reading devices) Billboards Cell phone use including texting GPS navigation systems Searching/reaching for objects in the cab Personal electronic devices (mobile phone hand-held or hands-free) Onboard entertainment systems Countermeasures Job-Related Electronics put in place by They use a PeopleNet system for electronic logs and can receive messages through that fleet/motivation system; i.e., the document comes across on screen. The driver cannot send a message while driving, but can't block messages from coming in. This system also logs hard braking events. They also use a GPS location system for navigation. A feature that would blank the screen while the vehicle is in motion would interfere with the navigation function. He feels that "anything on the screen could be a distraction" if the driver chooses to look at it for 45 seconds. When this occurs, the driver "loses all peripheral vision and awareness of whatever else" in the driving scene. These are great tools, but also distractions. (continued on next page)

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64 TABLE D6 (continued) Company Policy Regarding Mobile Phones Drivers are told to concentrate fully on driving; however, they have CB radios and cell phones. Company policy is to not allow use of the computer while the truck in motion, nor to allow cell phone use. However, the latter is unenforceable unless you happen to see it. If a driver is caught using a phone, a reprimand is issued. In one case a driver was terminated in the yard. In his view, some people can talk on the phone and drive a truck safely, and some cannot. They considered the possibility of allowing drivers to talk in hands-free mode and decided against it--they don't want them talking at all. Training Drivers participate in a classroom program, in which they learn on tabletop PeopleNet units. They also place drivers in vehicle with a driver trainer. The only remedial training relates to hours of service. Active Safety Systems Major roadways are not a problem. In addition to having 100% of his power units detecting hard braking, a 50 truck subset in his fleet consists of 2,011 vehicles, which are capable of automatic braking if an imminent forward collision is detected. That's great, he says, but driver's need to be doing that. Is he satisfied with this automatic braking system? He noted that on these 2,011 vehicles there have been no rear-end collisions, but there are few rear-ends anyway. A system like this is great if you're in the open spaces like New Mexico, but not for downtown or in heavy traffic. However, having such a system "makes you look good in court." Hiring Effective hiring is a priority. They screen thoroughly, and go a step further to identify any traffic ticket or crash problems and will not hire people if this is the case. How measures were When a driver has a series of hard braking incidents a discussion ensues in which the communicated to driver is shown the data and asked what happened. Sometimes the drivers are surprised drivers, and their the information on their driving exists. This safety manager believes they are likely to responses describe a situation not involving a cell phone, even if a cell phone was involved. At the same time, he says his drivers "understand Big Brother is here." Measures of success They monitor their crash rate as a key measure. Their current crash rate is 0.35 per and benchmarks million miles. He has not seen an uptick in their crash rate over recent years as cell phones have become more pervasive; however, he has seen a slight increase in their vehicles being hit by other drivers using cell phones. Generally, he can't tie any increase in crash involvement to the phone. Additional comments They are both self-insured and have an insurance carrier for major events. Regarding distracted driving, the insurer sends memos occasionally. Their "big kick" is cameras in tractors, but his chemical plant customers don't want cameras entering their facilities. In fact, if his driver has a camera in his phone, he must turn it in to the chemical plant guard gate when entering. It is not sufficient for a camera system to simply be switched off. The government needs to educate the public. Generally, the commercial vehicle industry has proven itself as safe and good stewards. However, some laws let 16 year olds drive and don't educate them. Prohibitions on electronics usage are a great idea but not enforceable. Whatever technical features might be prohibited or required on a commercial vehicle should apply to everyone.

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65 TABLE D7 CARRIER G, LONG- AND SHORT-HAUL TL PNEUMATIC BULK Carrier G This is a private, for-hire short-haul fleet, which consists of 85 power units (20 bobtail Description units) in a bulk/tanker hazardous materials operation. They deliver propane between Houston and Louisiana, with annual fleet mileage of 4.5 million miles. Interviewee and The interviewee, a former state policeman, has 27 years experience as a manager in Job Description commercial vehicle operations; 80% of his time is spent on safety matters. Degree to which A significant percentage of crashes can be directly related to driver distraction issues. distracted driving is a More awareness and driver training should be set as goals within carriers' safety programs safety problem to eliminate and teach drivers the importance of not permitting themselves to become distracted while driving. We as an industry are tasking their drivers with so many issues, pushing multi-tasking. We make too many demands in addition to other distractions. With distraction, there are certain things a driver can control: no CB, no text, no TV monitor, not lighting the cigarette, not adjusting air conditioning , not changing a CD, not reaching to the cooler while driving--it will take a lot of training and education to change that mindset. Primary sources of Passenger interactions driver distraction Personal (e.g., eating and grooming) (behaviors as well as Map reading devices) Cell phone use including texting Personal electronic devices (mobile phone hand-held or hands-free) Onboard entertainment systems Job-related electronics Countermeasures Participation in National Programs put in place by His company is a member of the Responsible Care program, a certification program fleet/motivation through the American Chemistry Council. This is part of their Total Quality Management system. The go through a certification audit, both internal and external. This includes building a safety consciousness. Their distracted driving policy is derived from that program. He is also a supporter of the FMCSA Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) initiative. This involves more roadside inspections along with more education, such that violations have decreased. He attributes this to the knowledge of his drivers. Electronic Devices Their vehicles have GPS locaters and electronic logs. The drivers use a PDA for messages. When the device sounds, the driver must activate it to read the message; the policy is that they have to stop the vehicle to do this. More broadly, the company policy is to prohibit the manipulation of electronics while in motion. Hands-free phones are not allowed either. "Both hands on wheel and eyes on road are what they want." Their drivers are professionals and they expect this. He noted that devices that disable cell phones could be useful and "we'll look at it eventually." Performance Bonus Every driver takes a battery of tests each month. A performance bonus is paid if they complete all testing correctly, Hiring During the hiring process, they check for general history plus all citations and accidents. The "greying of the fleet" is an issue as people retire; new drivers are not coming in. Further, someone new coming into this industry knows they'll get drug/alcohol tests and this chases away applicants. (continued on next page)

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66 TABLE D7 (continued) How measures were Employee Communications communicated to They publish a company newsletter every two weeks, which concentrates on safety, drivers, and their regulations, and reminders. There are also quarterly safety meetings. On each truck are responses decals in the cab, saying "no texting while driving." He seeks to have more interactions with his drivers, so that they see him as more than "the guy who fires drivers or checks fire extinguishers." He invites them to lunch anytime they are at corporate headquarters. Regarding driver distraction, he is trying to slowly ease them into a changed mindset that focuses on what they personally control: Choosing when/how to communicate while driving Use of CB radio Tuning radio Use of GPS Wellness habits Poor health, including smoking cigarettes, can lead to sleep apnea, which contributes to driver fatigue--and this is the contributor to crashes. These issues must be addressed by education, particularly in the areas of wellness and health care. Measures of success He noted that his fleet is 40% compliant based on their measures; they have a long way to and benchmarks go and education and training is the way to get there. Their quantified measures derive from vehicle data, including hard braking and idling time. Their main measure is cost per mile to operate on a per terminal basis. As to the crash rate, his reference point is his experience as a state policeman in the 1970s; since then there has been a tremendous improvement in the crash rate. He does not see cell phones as having a tremendous impact on total fatalities. He is very pleased with his fleet's crash rate; the statistics have gone down over time, and he credits the improvement to education and training of drivers. Additional comments Insurance companies initially took a "hands off" approach to CSA but are now taking a big interest. Outside insurance carriers will ask "did you check CSA?" As to driver distraction, they haven't made it an issue yet. Underwriters have asked him to educate them on the topic. He notes shippers are now looking at CSA more than price. Their fleet philosophy is to focus on dependability rather than giving the cheapest price. He considers himself to not be a "big-brother type" and thus his focus is on education. "We the industry fall short, not the regulatory agencies." For instance, people in the industry don't know what CSA is, even though there is plenty of educational material out there. "We as the industry need to do more promotion," such as through state ATA chapters. In particular, a small trucking company doesn't have luxury of a dedicated safety person and needs assistance from the broader industry.

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67 TABLE D8 CARRIER H, LONG-HAUL TL BULK/TANKER Carrier H This is a for-hire long-haul fleet, which consists of 900 power units in a bulk/tanker Description operation for specialty chemical hauling. Interviewee and The interviewee has 21 years experience as a manager in commercial vehicle operations. Job Description Ninety percent of his time is spent on safety matters. Degree to which He believes that driver distraction from both internal and external sources is a significant distracted driving is a safety issue for his fleet operations. He remembers when in-cab entertainment was an safety problem eight-track tape player, which the driver could turn off/on. Then, operating the tractor took more attention. Now the tractor is easier to operate, and there are systems for collision avoidance, roll stability, dash indicators, and cell phones. The in-cab distractions have grown exponentially. Primary sources of Personal (e.g., eating and grooming) driver distraction Map reading (behaviors as well as Cell phone use including texting devices) Personal electronic devices (mobile phone hand-held or hands-free) Reaching for objects in cab GPS devices Countermeasures Company Policy put in place by Cell phone use while driving is prohibited. Also, drivers are trained to go 10 mph below fleet/motivation the posted speed limit. They do not allow the use of off-the-shelf GPS navigators, as they are "all over board on accuracy and truck routes." Instead, they rely on good, old-fashioned phone calls and atlases, when not driving. Device-Based Countermeasures There is a blank in-cab screen when tractors are rolling, with an exception for teams. He believes drivers comply with this policy and "can't imagine a teammate would allow the driver to look at the screen." Team driving provides checks and balances. The nondriving member of a team may recognize how the driver may be distracted. When asked if this has created more tension between team members, he said he has no feedback along those lines. The teammates know each other well, are frequently husband/wife, and are not afraid to check each other. As to other devices, they have upgraded their satellite communications systems for text- to-voice to give the driver directions. Driving Performance Over-speed and RPMs are monitored via the Qualcomm TRACS system and hard braking and roll stability events are monitored as well. The notification of an event goes to the driver team leader who has a discussion with the driver. The system sometimes has glitches and may not be accurate on the hard braking, so the discussion is important. Can the vehicle data be related to distraction? He noted that someone not familiar with an area may be looking for exit and end up making a quick turn--these situations can happen. Training They train new drivers to be careful about getting lost and needing to use a cell phone to find their way. They "never want to be part of crash with a cell phone." Drivers participate in quarterly sustainment training. Compliance Compliance is "pretty darn good." Eyewitness reports observing drivers on cell phones are extremely minimal. If a driver is witnessed using a cell phone, especially if repeated, this could lead to termination. Statistics They believe that a driver involved in vehicle incidents leads to crashes later, according to statistical data they have reviewed. (continued on next page)

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68 TABLE D8 (continued) How measures were Communications Campaign to Drivers communicated to This includes a driver reference guide, driver handbook, newsletter, and monthly business drivers, and their reviews. response Driver Acceptance The more public opinion is involved and in favor of what we are saying, the easier it is to get drivers in line. For example, with seat belts, the public push has been out for a while, so this is easy. On the other extreme, they have a strong sleep apnea program in the company, but this is harder to push to drivers, as there is not as much public visibility. When it comes to cell phones, public information helps. "Acceptance hasn't been real tough, but there are those who don't believe, especially on a long open highway." Measures of success He views their measurement system as robust. High-level metrics (DOT reportable and benchmarks crashes) and vehicle incidents all go into an analysis process and they look for trends/ outliers. For particular events, they ask, "is it possible/probable this person was on a cell phone?" They reserve the right to research their cell phone billing records if needed, but they haven't done this in the ten years he has been with the company. Additional comments He would love to have a federal ban on cell phone use by commercial drivers--this is "a no brainer." This would make it extremely easy for carriers to have consistent rules. Even something consistent across the states would help. He has had long discussions with their operations department when they were working with a customer who wanted to use Nextel push-to-talk units to change destinations in real time. This conversation got into whether it was legal to use cell phones in certain areas, and would this be a distraction for the driver. In a case such as this, it would be must easer to respond to the customer by saying, "no, this is illegal due to federal law." Without these absolutes, they can lose a customer, he said. In this particular case, they agreed to carry Nextels, but that the driver would not respond immediately to "pings" and instead pull off the road to respond. TABLE D9 CARRIER I, LOCAL TL TANKER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Carrier I This is a for-hire local fleet which consists of 34 power units in a liquid bulk truckload Description operation for hazardous materials hauling. This includes waste hauling and servicing refineries. Interviewee and The interviewee has 16 years experience as a manager in commercial vehicle operations. Job Description Seventy (70) percent of his time is spent on safety matters. Degree to which He believes that driver distraction from both internal and external sources is a significant distracted driving is safety issue for his fleet operations. To him, driver distraction includes job-related road a safety problem construction/repair detours, lane restrictions, reduced speeds and congestion. Driver distraction also comes from job-related road issues such as accidents, and roadside hazards. He believes audio information is more distracting than visual information, because auditory information is sequential it disappears quickly like human speech. With visual communications you always have the ability to retrace/ review what you missed. Drivers do not recognize behind the wheel their vulnerability to these distractions. Primary sources of Passenger interactions driver distraction Personal (e.g., eating and grooming) (behaviors as well Map reading as devices) Reading billboards

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69 TABLE D9 (continued) Cell phone use including texting Personal electronic devices (mobile phone hand-held or hands-free) Reaching for objects in cab Adjusting entertainment and climate control systems GPS devices Job-related devices Aftermarket active safety systems Weigh-in-motion inspections Countermeasures Company Policy put in place by The company has zero tolerance for cell phone use, neither hands-free nor hand-held fleet/motivation phones are allowed. This in particular because of state law locally. They participate in the American Chemistry Council Responsible Care program. Electronic Devices and Monitoring They are using a Qualcomm system to measure metrics such as speed, hard braking, and location. When incidents occur, they communicate with the driver on safety deficiencies. They can mitigate distraction via Qualcomm through canned messages, preprinted across the computer screen, such as "shipper destination arrived." The screens are darkened when wheels are turning; drivers cannot view or hear messages. They do not have electronic on-board recorders. As to the use of video camera monitoring, they are aware of this and have seen information from the National Tank Truck Carriers Association; they have no cameras in their trucks, as "we aren't up to that yet." He noted that his sector of the industry is so regulated that compliance issues take up our resources; onboard cameras are not part of Federal compliance. As safety manager, he is keenly aware of the advantage of on-board cameras, but they are cost prohibitive. Furthermore, facilities do not want cameras entering the grounds; some facilities confiscate the driver's personal cell phone if it has a camera on it. How measures were Communication to drivers occurs through regularly scheduled safety meetings to com- communicated to municate policy; policies are also posted in the driver's room. Third party training drivers, and their services are used. response His fleet did not encounter any driver resistance to zero tolerance of cell phones. As part of the communications process, this safety manager did a presentation to his drivers, noting that they "are a small, controlled group, a captive audience, paid for their attendance." He also noted that States do a good job of checking credentials (to see a history of their training). They can also convey messages on Qualcomm, even though there is a cost for use. He is skeptical that his drivers are actually adhering to the policy; he assumes that at minimum their family members are calling. The fleet awards drivers who demonstrate a good safety record. Measures of success None and benchmarks (continued on next page)

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70 TABLE D9 (continued) Additional He adds that he has a full plate each day; the job doesn't turn off at the end of the day. In comments the chemical industry, security is right up there with other responsibilities. The topic of distraction is highly relevant and appropriate. The industry is going through a transfor- mation with stabilization systems on liquid trailers and other enhancements. These come at a tremendous cost to industry and this is especially tough on small fleets. Nevertheless, "we have the commitment to continual improvement." He supports the aims of this project; for the government to shoulder cost of this kind of study is good. He also advocates helping small companies who are understaffed. All compliance areas are understaffed and it is important to reach out to contact and assist companies. TABLE D10 CARRIER J, LONG- AND SHORT-HAUL TL PNEUMATIC BULK Carrier J This private fleet operates 66 tractor-trailers in the New England area in a local operation. Description Interviewee and The interviewee has 20 years experience in commercial vehicle operations, with 16 years Job Description as a safety manager; 70% of his time is spent on safety matters. Degree to which He believes that driver distraction from both internal and external sources is a significant distracted driving is a safety issue for his fleet operations. He is not aware of incidents in his fleet where cell safety problem phones were involved. Primary sources of Personal (e.g., eating and grooming) driver distraction Cell phone use (behaviors as well as Reaching for objects in cab devices) Personal electronic devices Countermeasures Company Policy put in place by Beginning in 2008, the fleet had a policy about cell phone use, and he since enhanced the fleet/motivation policy to limit it to hands free only. They also have a mandate against texting, including e-mails. The policy must be companywide, and includes sales force. What was the motivation for only allowing hands free? He is working toward a total ban and thinks he has the driver buy-in and ownership to go there. The current policy is a step in that direction. Driver buy-in and ownership is key; he is leery about a policy that can't be enforced. They do not supply cell phones to their drivers. Electronic Devices They currently have NavTrak, a basic GPS system. They will go with PeopleNet for an Electronic On-Board Recorder. With this system they will use the lockout function: drivers will get message alerts, but have no ability to use the system while the vehicle is in motion. He was not aware of monitoring electronics. He recently saw a webinar about distracted driving sponsored by "Comply." This focused on increasing monitoring through the PeopleNet device, linking the Central Office to vehicles on the road, with at least e-mails. They are in the preliminary stages of looking at lane departure warning systems, which may be tied into the PeopleNet system. Monitoring Working with their insurer, there is a proposal to have driver supervisors in cab to monitor drivers. There is also an 800 call-in number for monitoring. They are considering third- party observations with objective and trained monitors.

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71 TABLE D10 (continued) How measures were They have two meetings a year with drivers. They must stress and reinforce their policy communicated to on distraction in every safety meeting. As noted above, he thinks he has the driver buy-in drivers, and their and ownership for a total ban on cell phone use. responses Measures of success None and benchmarks Additional comments None TABLE D11 CARRIER K, LONG- AND SHORT-HAUL BULK TANKER HAZMAT Carrier K This is a for-hire, short- and long-haul fleet, which consists of 99 power units in a Description bulk/tanker hazmat operation. Interviewee and The interviewee has 35 years experience in commercial vehicle operations, with 12 years Job Description as a manager. All of his time is spent on safety matters. He was formerly an owner operator driver. He is a regional safety chairman for NTTC, and now national chairman. He has been involved with the driver distraction issue for about 12 years, doing lots of networking in the industry. He developed his own training videos, using past accidents to show the effects of distracted driving. He used his situations for examples rather than other training. Degree to which He believes that driver distraction from both internal and external sources is a significant distracted driving is a safety issue for his fleet operations. safety problem Primary sources of Passenger interactions driver distraction Personal (e.g., eating and grooming) (behaviors as well as Map reading devices) Reading billboards Cell phone use including texting Personal electronic devices (mobile phone, hand-held or hands-free) Reaching for objects in cab Adjusting entertainment and climate control systems GPS devices Job-related devices Regarding CB radios, older guys use them. Younger drivers don't. They may or may not be distracting. Try to heighten sensitivity while doing other things. Be aware you are taking your eyes off the road. Therefore, it is a training and heightened awareness matter. Keep drivers aware, and let them know the consequences. Also, personal matters are distracting; i.e., mind not on the task Countermeasures Company Policy put in place by No current policy, but they are in the process of switching to Qualcomm just in the fleet/motivation training direction. They will use emergency alerts, but can't use while driving. Policy is only as good as it can be enforced; they don't have company cell phones. He doesn't know how you can really enforce policies in the real world. The key is to instill the concern with the driver, through the dispatcher. Training They use driver trainers, observe units, and report on results. They can pull up hard braking on current Qualcomm systems (on one-third of current fleet). This enables them to monitor in real time in the office. (continued on next page)

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72 TABLE D11 (continued) How measures were Diligent training to keep drivers aware is the bottom line. Drivers are the last safety valve communicated to on the truck. It has to come down to personal responsibility. What has been the response drivers, and their of drivers to training? He can't attribute any accident to the use of a cell phone or other responses personal communications device. Measures of success None and benchmarks Additional comments Re driver machine interface techniques, they have roll over sensors on trailers. It still comes down to driver training and sensitivity to potential consequences. The more of this type of stuff you put on the truck, the more you take away the driver responsibility. It will never get to the point where the truck stops on its own. Re the policy of government; it is illegal in Illinois to use cell phones in a construction zone. He wants FMCSA to ban them. He noted NTSB's concern and recent recommendation. He wondered whether, under CSA, violations would count against you. The challenge is to keep information accurate; there are lots of subjective situations. This applies to hands free use, too.