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SECTION 8 Issues in Ferry Service Management and Operation The research and case studies conducted for TCRP Project H-40 identified several major man- agement and operational concerns that are common to all ferry operators. These include recruit- ing, development, and retention of personnel; vessel technology; terminal design; energy and environmental impacts; land use and traffic and transit coordination issues; regulatory and safety requirements; maintenance requirements; and marketability. Recruiting, Development, and Retention of Personnel Ferry systems require operating, maintenance, and administrative personnel. Vessel opera- tion requires crews that include licensed as well as unlicensed personnel. Operational control of all ferries resides with the Master, a licensed officer. The Master must understand all aspects of vessel operation. Aside from the technical knowledge required to be the Master (i.e., fire prevention, basic first aid, safety, and so forth), the Master is the manager on the vessel and needs to engage in management best practices, including planning work assign- ments and activities, organizing the work flow, and controlling and assessing the actual work performed. This requires good communication with the operational staff. Operational activities require ongoing training and development and are challenging even under normal conditions. When the employees are entrusted by top management to safely navigate assets worth tens of millions of dollars large distances, then personnel development is critical. The case studies conducted for TCRP Project H-40 indicate that most systems prefer to recruit and develop vessel crew members at the entry level and develop their skills onboard; in contrast, systems tend to recruit for mechanical and administrative positions at all levels on the open mar- ket. The onboard crew members are often recruited from high schools and community colleges or are hired after working in the local fishing fleet. Most crew members start as deckhands and eventually work their way into either a captain position or into management and administra- tion. Public policy has created rigorous new standards for personnel in safety-related positions. Maritime crews must submit to drug testing as well as security clearances as part of their initial and ongoing job requirements. Continual training and education is a best practice identified in the case studies conducted for TCRP Project H-40, along with career counseling and encouraging staff to pursue opportunities for promotion. In addition, some ferry operations, due to the seasonal nature of the business, have seasonal employees with the same status as full-time staff, even though they do not work in the winter months. Fast ferries require additional employee training and supervision. Some fast-ferry operators use aircraft protocol (bridge crew only speak as required, bridge is restricted, and so forth) due 112