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SECTION 4 Stakeholders and Institutions Affecting Ferry Services In the United States, ferries have been regulated and chartered due to their historic status as com- mon carriers and "highways." Many of these regulations include state utilities commission "certifi- cates of necessity" establishing routes. Sometimes this economic regulation includes approval of fares and tariffs; other times, states either operate directly or contract for ferry operations as part of their state highway systems, such as when there is no bridge connecting a state highway. Securing landing rights is another ferry service requirement that usually involves the coopera- tion and often the approval of a state or local government. The breadth and scope of state regula- tion varies from little oversight to broad requirements requiring the approval of a regulating body. In addition to state involvement, the federal government also provides safety oversight and financial support. Federal Regulatory Agencies Each of the agencies described below has different involvement with ferries, including provid- ing funding, regulation, and oversight as well as ensuring safety and security onboard vessels and at ferry terminals. U.S. Department of Transportation The U.S. DOT develops and coordinates policies that provide an efficient and economical national transportation system, with due regard for need, the environment, and the national defense. It is the primary agency in the federal government with responsibility for shaping and administering policies and programs to protect and enhance the safety, adequacy, and effi- ciency of the transportation system and services. Within the U.S. DOT, the Office of the Secre- tary, FHWA, MARAD, and FTA all can provide oversight and assistance for ferry services. In addition, RITA provides multimodal research for U.S. DOT (Habib et al., 1980). Federal Highway Administration FHWA coordinates highway transportation programs primarily in cooperation with states. As part of this mission, FHWA also funds ferries through traditional highway programs and spec- ified ferry funding grants. Maritime Administration MARAD promotes development and maintenance of an adequate, well-balanced, United States merchant marine. MARAD also administers the Title XI ship financing program, which provides federally guaranteed loans for shipbuilding projects. Ferries are eligible for the Title XI program and have been financed through the program in the past. 13