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Issues in Ferry Service Management and Operation 127 The Coast Guard is charged with ensuring that vessels in U.S. waters comply with maritime security standards and with reviewing and ensuring compliance with security plans and stan- dards. The TSA, in addition to issuing TWIC identification, coordinates with the Coast Guard on training and other operations. In addition, local and state law enforcement agencies provide landside support and enforcement as necessary. The owners and operators of ferries are responsible for ensuring their security by conducting vulnerability assessments and implementing security plans as required by the Coast Guard. Oper- ators may reduce the risk of security breaches by securing wheelhouses; having local law enforce- ment officers onboard on some trips; and sometimes screening passengers, vehicles, or packages boarding the vessel. Coast Guard guidance is to enact measures that protect passengers without unduly compromising service to the community (U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2010). TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security--Volume 11: Security Measures for Ferry Sys- tems includes a detailed list of general security measures (GSMs) and five sets of evaluation crite- ria weighted by the user that are accessible in a seven-step spreadsheet tool (Science Applications International Corporation, 2006). Security regulations instituted by the Coast Guard require ferry operators to address six spe- cific security measures to maintain an appropriate level of security (Science Applications Inter- national Corporation, 2006): Access control. Prevent unauthorized entries and devices from being introduced that would damage or injure people or property. Restricted areas. Prevent and deter unauthorized persons from accessing sensitive areas of the ferry system. Cargo handling. Ensure the safety and security of cargo. Delivery of vessel stores and bunkers. Deter people from tampering with, contaminating, and using vessel stores and bunkers to injure people or damage property. Monitoring. Continuously monitor the fleet and facilities within the ferry system. Security incident procedures. Develop an emergency response plan that is coordinated with local, state, and federal agencies. In addition to the 6 security measures, TCRP Report 86, Volume 11, identifies 11 security loca- tions within ferry systems that define area specific threats. Landing Rights In the United States, many states and most local jurisdictions require ferry operators to obtain permission (either through a lease or permit) to access landing locations and other property that are commonly sovereign lands of the state. Requirements vary on landing rights. Insurance Many states, even though they do not regulate ferry services economically, do require that operators carry a minimum level of insurance. This insurance coverage includes public liability, garageman, and other risk management and liability tools. In addition, federal law mandates maritime worker coverage for work-related injuries. Maintenance Requirements Daily and long-term maintenance is a major consideration for all ferry operators and factors into decisions on operating and capital budgets, vessel replacement schedules, and staff levels.