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SECTION 5 Ferry Case Studies Eight ferry operators were carefully selected for case studies to represent the wide breadth of the ferry business. The selected operators include small Midwestern vehicle and passenger fer- ries, passenger-only ferries in New York Harbor, and ferries in the U.S. Virgin Islands and the Pacific Northwest. Initial Survey of Ferry Operators The case studies were guided by the initial findings from a survey of more than 40 ferry operators, which led into focusing on narrower topics for further development in the research program. The survey was conducted through telephone interviews from May through July 2009. The telephone interviews covered the same topics as the literature review: Ferry planning Ferry operations Ferry funding Ferry disaster response, safety, security, and risk Ferry environmental assessment, planning, and mitigation Ferry marketing The survey sample included representatives of the full range of ferry operators, from very small operators to those operators that carry more than a million passengers, from seasonal operators to year-round operators, and from privately owned and operated systems to publicly operated systems at the federal, state/provincial, and local levels. The sample also included operators from various geographic regions. The survey was designed to allow for multiple respondents from the same operator to answer questions, which occurred during interviews with larger operators. A $100 incentive was offered to encourage participation so that the desired number of interviews would be completed. Forty-three interviews were completed. The survey respondents answered anonymously dur- ing the reporting process. Characteristics of the respondents include the following: Of the fifteen publicly owned ferries surveyed, one is a federal agency, seven are state or provincial governments, and seven are local operators. Twenty of the ferry operators surveyed are privately owned and operated, while seven are pub- licly owned but operated by private companies under contract. Fourteen ferries are seasonal, while sixteen operate year-round. The number of passengers carried annually ranged from less than 500 to 2 million. 18