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SECTION 2 Definitions and Types of Ferry Services An important initial task is to define the ferry operations considered in this guidance. In the context of this research, ferry transportation is a transportation route similar to that provided by a highway or a railway. Definitions Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary defines the noun form of the word "ferry" as "a place where persons or things are carried across a body of water (as a river) in a boat" (Merriam-Webster Inc., 2003), and The New Oxford Dictionary of English defines ferry as "a boat or ship that carries people, vehicles and goods across a river or across a narrow part of the sea" (Oxford University Press, 1998). The Random House Unabridged Dictionary defines a highway as "any public road or waterway" (Random House, 1997). Government legal definitions take this ordinary language and refine the definition of ferry service more specifically to be a transportation service using a boat or vessel as a common car- rier for passengers or passengers and vehicles (as a highway is open to all users), in a highway use (for purposeful travel between two points), within a specific "narrow" waterway. A vessel, there- fore, traveling from New York to Lisbon, is not a ferry because it is not a narrow waterway. A freight-only service is also not a ferry. Given these definitions, this research considers ferry ser- vice as a passenger transportation service that can also provide vehicle transportation, but that does not include non-point-to-point sightseeing marine services or freight shipping. Marine services that serve purposeful travel to and from recreational areas are considered ferries. The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) of the U.S. Department of Transportation ac- knowledges two types of ferry public transit modes: Ferry Transit (BTS Ferry Transit) and Ferry Intercity (BTS Ferry Intercity). BTS Ferry Transit is defined as scheduled ferry service running between points within a city or the same metropolitan area while BTS Ferry Intercity is defined as scheduled ferry service running between points that are not within the same metropolitan area or are not located in any metropolitan area (RITA, accessed April 8, 2010). In at least two states (North Carolina and Washington) and one territory (U.S. Virgin Islands), the state ferry systems are considered as part of the overall state highway system, as they provide critical linkages as part of the state's transportation system. On April 8, 2010, the U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) released its final rule defining the new Marine Highway Program that was originally established on October 9, 2008. While the term "marine highway" has been loosely used to describe ferry transit service, the new MARAD rule firmly defines the term "marine highway" to refer exclusively to short sea transportation. Thus, the term "marine highway" does not refer to ferry transit, but the word "highway" can be 6