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Definitions and Types of Ferry Services 7 used to refer to ferries within a state's highway system. In the states of Washington and North Carolina, the state-operated ferry systems are considered as part of the states' highway system, waterway routes that are an extension of the roadway system. In this instance, ferry routes are part of an overall highway system. Based on the U.S. government documents discussed above and on the case studies developed for this project, ferry service can be categorized into the following: Transit (no vehicle access): Ferry Urban--consisting of scheduled service between points within a city or metropoli- tan area (Under the BTS scheme, this would be BTS Ferry Transit). Ferry Intercity--consisting of scheduled service between metropolitan areas (Under the BTS scheme, this would be BTS Ferry Intercity). Highway Ferry Essential--consisting of scheduled service between points outside a metropolitan area or between metropolitan areas and providing vehicle access (primarily BTS Ferry In- tercity although some are categorized as BTS Ferry Transit) almost always in areas without direct roadway access. Types of Ferry Service Varying types of ferry service are provided across the country. As defined in the second edition of the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual (Kettleson & Associates, Inc., et al., 2003), the various service configurations include water taxis, passenger ferries, and automobile ferries. Water Taxis Water taxis are small watercraft that typically serve short cross-waterways or waterway circu- lation routes. Water taxis do not operate on fixed routes or use time-based schedules; rather, they operate on an on-demand basis, with service being variable throughout the day, depending on demand. (Because water taxis do not operate on a fixed route, they are not considered in this research. There are some marine services that have all the other aspects of ferry services-- scheduled service, purposeful trips, and so forth--which are marketed as water taxis; however, in this study they are considered ferries.) Passenger Ferries Passenger ferries are larger vessels that have higher passenger capacities and speeds than water taxis and that typically serve short- to moderate-length routes. This kind of ferry service will be referred to as "ferry transit" in this report. Passenger ferries operate on fixed routes with time- based schedules. Examples of passenger ferries operating within a metropolitan area include the New York Harbor cross-Hudson ferries, operated by NY Waterway, NY Water Taxi, and other carriers using 120150 passenger-only vessels. Some passenger-only ferries operate between metropolitan areas or provide access to rural areas. These are categorized as Ferry Intercity, and examples include the U.S. Virgin Island fer- ries, the Victoria Clipper from Seattle, Washington, to Victoria, British Columbia, and the var- ious ferry services operating between Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard in Massachusetts. Automobile Ferries Automobile ferries--also known as roll-on, roll-off (RO-RO) ferries--transport vehicles as well as passengers. They are typically used on longer routes across major bodies of water and on

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8 Guidelines for Ferry Transportation Services low-volume rural roads crossing rivers. Automobile ferries operate on fixed routes with time- based schedules. Examples of automobile ferries include state ferry systems in North Carolina, Washington State, and in British Columbia. Some of these services can be categorized as BTS Ferry Transit (i.e., the Washington State ferry system, which connects Kitsap County to Seattle with ferry routes as short as 10 miles), but most are BTS Ferry Intercity since they generally con- nect areas that are distinct metropolitan areas or connect metropolitan areas to rural areas. For the purposes of this report, any vessel on a fixed route that carries automobiles will be referred to as "ferry highway."