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TRANSIT TCRP REPORT 152 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Guidelines for Ferry Transportation Services

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS Keith Parker VIA Metropolitan Transit CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Consultant, Silver Spring, MD VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson MEMBERS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board John Bartosiewicz McDonald Transit Associates Michael Blaylock MEMBERS Jacksonville Transportation Authority J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Raul Bravo Raul V. Bravo & Associates Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Terry Garcia Crews Norfolk, VA Metro Cincinnati William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Carolyn Flowers Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Charlotte Area Transit System James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Angela Iannuzziello Genivar Consultants Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia John Inglish Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Utah Transit Authority Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Paul Jablonski Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence San Diego Metropolitan Transit System Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Sherry Little Spartan Solutions LLC Joan McDonald, Commissioner, New York State DOT, Albany Jonathan H. McDonald Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington HNTB Corporation Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Gary W. McNeil Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA GO Transit Bradford Miller Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Frank Otero David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA PACO Technologies Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA Peter Rogoff Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, FTA Jeffrey Rosenberg West Lafayette, IN Amalgamated Transit Union Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul Richard Sarles Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Michael Scanlon San Mateo County Transit District Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing James Stem Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI United Transportation Union C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Gary Thomas Dallas Area Rapid Transit EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Frank Tobey First Transit J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Matthew O. Tucker Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA North County Transit District Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Phillip Washington Denver Regional Transit District LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of Alice Wiggins-Tolbert the Interior, Washington, DC Parsons Brinckerhoff John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Michael P. Melaniphy John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation APTA Officials, Washington, DC Robert E. Skinner, Jr. David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT TRB Michael P. Melaniphy, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC John C. Horsley AASHTO Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Victor Mendez Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, FHWA Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Louis Sanders Homeland Security, Washington, DC APTA Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT Christopher W. Jenks TRB David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA Gregory D. Winfree, Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of December 2011. *Membership as of November 2011.

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 152 Guidelines for Ferry Transportation Services Anthony Bruzzone ARUP NORTH AMERICA LTD SAN FRANCISCO, CA Subscriber Categories Public Transportation Marine Transportation Terminals and Facilities Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 152 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Project H-40 and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISSN 1073-4872 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISBN 978-0-309-21383-7 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve Library of Congress Control Number 2012930196 these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions COPYRIGHT INFORMATION to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report published or copyrighted material used herein. 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Administration--now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes from CRP. research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, NOTICE facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research administrative practices. Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- Governing Board of the National Research Council. posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Council, and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but they are considered essential to the object of the report. may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Published reports of the nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- are available from: ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for Transportation Research Board workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure Business Office that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively and can be ordered through the Internet at address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 152 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lawrence D. Goldstein, Senior Program Officer Tiana Barnes, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Editor TCRP PROJECT H-40 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Martha Bewick, The Harbor Consultancy International, Hingham, MA (Chair) Janet Cox, Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, New York, NY Ray Deardorf, Washington State DOT, Seattle, WA Elizabeth J. Gedney, Passenger Vessel Association, Alexandria, VA Celia G. Kupersmith, San Francisco, CA Joseph A. Riccio, Jr., Connecticut Maritime Commission, Stratford, CT John P. Sindzinski, Water Transit Authority, San Francisco, CA Robin Trinko-Russell, Madeline Island Ferry Line, La Pointe, WI Ryan J. Frigo, FTA Liaison Michael Gordon, US Maritime Administration Liaison Joedy W. Cambridge, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Lauren Dong Arup North America Ltd Ian Austin URS Corporation Tom Fox The Fox Group Veronica Raymonda Quantum Market Research

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FOREWORD By Lawrence D. Goldstein Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TCRP Report 152 examines the history and characteristics of ferry systems throughout North America and, based on this review, develops guidelines for planning, marketing, operating, and managing a ferry system as a component of an overall transportation net- work. These guidelines examine the potential benefits of and impediments to ferry trans- portation services and help establish planning, operational, and management benchmarks: (a) ability to increase capacity of the local, regional, or national transportation network; (b) potential to reduce travel congestion; (c) degree of potential environmental mitigation; (d) potential effect on local and regional economies; (e) procedures for measuring cost- effectiveness; and (f) ability to contribute to disaster/emergency preparedness. Included are criteria that transportation system planners and decision makers can use to evaluate the via- bility of proposed ferry services as a function of specific location, travel demand, and over- all market conditions. The guidelines are aimed at policymakers who are considering ferry services as a trans- portation option, entrepreneurs who are considering investing in new or expanded ferry services, and existing operators who could use the "how-to" portions of this research. The guidelines identify those factors that help create competitive ferry service in specific markets, particularly where roads and bridges are congested, where ferries can offer direct paths of travel, and where markets are large enough to support capital and operating expenses associated with provision of ferry services. Ferry service in the United States has experienced resurgence in popularity and interest in the past 10 to 15 years. Increasing levels of automobile congestion across the country, the rising cost for expanding public transit, and the development constraints on new infrastruc- ture have in some locations combined to make waterborne transportation an attractive alternative. While ferry transportation is one of the oldest forms of public transit in the United States, it is only recently that ferry services were recognized as another public transit operation in league with buses, trains, and subways. In response to potential changes in market conditions, the objective of this research was to prepare a practitioner's guide for the ferry industry: to review experience of existing systems; to extract typical planning, development, and operating parameters; and to help establish a systematic planning and development procedure. To prepare this study, the research team began with a broad literature search, reviewed planning documents available from many levels, and supplemented that review with an in- depth study of eight ferry systems operating in various places throughout the United States as well as in British Columbia. A major component of this research was a review and analysis of best practices based on a thorough study of experience. Additional information is contained in the two appendices that accompany the guidelines: Appendix A, which provides

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a bibliography, and Appendix B, which summarizes the ferry operators' survey that was used to gather original data on each system included. The product of this research is a set of ferry system planning and development guidelines incorporated into two major sections. The first section reports on the background research underpinning the analysis. This section includes information gathered through implement- ing the eight case studies--documenting specific system planning, development, and oper- ating experience. It also summarizes unique experience with special circumstances, from the heroic disaster response the New York Harbor ferries handled three times over the last decade (9/11, the Northeast Blackout, and US Airways Flight 1549's landing in the Hudson), to the response to special environmental conditions that can be a pitfall in system realization when not adequately addressed as part of the planning process. The research stresses that no individual ferry system is typical. In many ways, each sys- tem is unique; however, each offers examples of practice and system information resources adaptable to specific market area conditions. What emerges from this study is an ordered approach to the ferry service planning and development process, leading the user through two significant phases: actual strategic planning and preparation of an effective business plan for implementation and system operation. These guidelines focus on strategic planning issues, suggesting criteria for consideration during the planning and development process. The guidelines also examine how ferry system planning should be integrated into the statewide transportation planning process and summarize the role of federal regulatory agencies. Based on the review of the related literature together with the case study analysis, the guidelines conclude that successful ferry system planning and development requires strategic placement of the ferry product and preparation of a comprehensive business plan that incorporates the following components: Business description and vision; Definition of the market; Description of products and services; Organization and management; Planning, marketing, and sales; and Financial management.

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CONTENTS P A R T 1 Background Information and Case Studies 3 Section 1 Introduction 3 Background 3 Objectives and Methodology 5 Report Organization 6 Section 2 Definitions and Types of Ferry Services 6 Definitions 7 Types of Ferry Service 9 Section 3 Ferry Service Typologies 9 Ferry Functions 11 Ferry Route Typology 13 Section 4 Stakeholders and Institutions Affecting Ferry Services 13 Federal Regulatory Agencies 14 Other Federal Agencies 15 State and Local Agencies 15 Funding Sources 18 Section 5 Ferry Case Studies 18 Initial Survey of Ferry Operators 19 About the Case Studies 19 ConnecticutLong Island (New York) Ferry Services 28 New York Harbor Ferries 39 North Carolina Department of Transportation Ferry Division 47 U.S. Virgin Island Ferries 52 Washington Island Ferry Line (Wisconsin) 57 Seattle Metropolitan Area Ferry System 71 Hawaii Superferry Project 78 British Columbia Ferry System P A R T 2 Practitioner and Policymaker Guidance 91 Section 6 Summary of Guidance 93 Section 7 Strategic Planning in Ferry Service Development 93 Problem Identification 94 Assessment of All Transit Alternatives--Incorporation of Goals, Criteria, and Measures 98 Analysis of the Ferry Alternative 105 The Go/No-Go Decision

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112 Section 8 Issues in Ferry Service Management and Operation 112 Recruiting, Development, and Retention of Personnel 113 Vessel Technology 116 Terminal Design 123 Energy and Environmental Impacts 123 Land Use and Traffic and Transit Coordination Issues 125 Regulatory and Safety Requirements 127 Maintenance Requirements 128 Marketability 130 Section 9 Strategic Plan/Business Plan 130 Strategic Plan 131 Business Plan 135 References 138 Appendix A Bibliography 142 Appendix B Ferry Operators' Survey Results Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.