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10 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter summarizes findings from a literature review report are from 20002001 and, as a result, some of its rel- related to off-board transit fare payment using PoP verifi- evance has been diminished. Even so, the report addresses cation. The primary sources of material reviewed include the full range of issues and parameters that an agency must the following: transportation-related databases (e.g., TRB's consider in determining the applicability of PoP, including Transportation Research Information Services and the those related to policy and enforcement issues, operational Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development issues, and capital and equipment issues. At the time, the Joint Transport Research Centre's International Transport report noted that the number of North American systems Research Documentation, APTA, California Partners for using PoP totaled 28, with the services being predominately Advanced Transportation Technology); U.S. DOT- and LRT lines (15 of the 28) and CR lines (nine of the 28). There TCRP-sponsored research; individual reports prepared by were also two HRT and two BRT services. or for transit agencies; and magazine/journal articles, media news articles/reports, and Internet blogs. The objective of the report was to "develop a set of guide- lines for use by transit agencies implementing or considering The materials reviewed from the above sources have use of SSFC [self-service fare collection]" and to "provide been organized into five groups as an aid to practitioners practical guidance to policy makers, planners, researchers, who have to deal with the variety of issues related to PoP and operating managers." In retrospect, TCRP 80 has been fare collection: found to accomplish this objective. It provides guidance that covers major aspects of PoP operations and enforcement, · Experiences with implementation, such as use of special field audits or surveys to augment · BRT applications, monitoring of evasion rates, development of inspection strat- · Measuring fare evasion, egies to supplement the normal inspection process with tar- · Managing PoP within the organization, and geted 100% sweeps, practices with regard to discretionary · Fare collection and fare evasion coverage in the media. powers concerning issuance of citations, passenger informa- tion strategies, and dealing with the complexities associated In aggregate, the items reviewed as part of this study rep- with different forms of fare media. resent a comprehensive research resource on the subject of PoP fare collection. Not all of the material that was gathered DeMarino discusses a more recent application of PoP has been summarized in this chapter. However, as part of having to do with its implementation on a new BRT service this study, a reference and resource base has been established for NYCT (2). The report provides a thorough history of within the TRB Committee on Light Rail Transit (Stand- the development of PoP fare collection for NYCT's Select ing Committee AP075). The majority of resources collected Bus Service (SBS), the underlying enforcement philosophy, have been transferred to the committee and are available on enforcement tactics and strategy, how to measure effective- the committee's website at http://research.lctr.org/trblrt/. ness, and the "art and science of proper discretion" in "fair" enforcement. This reference is useful for an operator prepar- ing to organize a fare enforcement function as well as opera- EXPERIENCES WITH PROOF-OF-PAYMENT tors who want to review their existing PoP function and take IMPLEMENTATION advantage of NYCT's experiences. The 2002 TCRP Report 80 remains a relevant and thorough A different implementation scope is covered in a paper research document on the subject of PoP fare collection (1). by Watry and Straus from 2000, which deals with conver- In addition, reports from New York City, San Francisco, and sion from traditional fare collection to PoP (3). The authors Vancouver provide a range of experiences on the real-world, provide a comprehensive summary of the experiences of the practical aspects of operating PoP. first system in the United States, San Francisco Muni's LRT, to undertake such a conversion. The conversion process TCRP Report 80 contains a wealth of data and informa- was faced with unique problems associated with a mixture tion on the subject of PoP fare collection. The data in the of right-of-way types, station and platform configurations,