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26 TABLE 28 Survey respondents noted some other transactions avail- METHODS OF PURCHASING FARE MEDIA able on their TVMs: Method n % Accept tokens, At station: ticket vending machine(s) on platform 28 96.6 Accept paper coupons, At station: sales booth with agency personnel 10 34.5 Accept MetroCards, At station: in third-party commercial outlet 2 6.9 Validate vouchers, and On-board transit vehicle 13 44.8 Reload smart cards. By U.S. mail 11 37.9 The versatility of the TVMs is demonstrated by the Via Internet 17 58.6 range of fare media issued, as reported by 29 operators At third-party outlets throughout region 25 86.2 and shown in Table 30. Various passes and stored-value Electronic transit funds transfer 1 3.4 cards can all be issued. Next to single-ride tickets (96.6% Agency office(s) 18 62.1 of the operators' TVMs issue), day passes (69.0%) and Other 3 10.3 monthly passes (55.2%) are the most common forms of fare media issued. Total responding agencies 29 Multiple responses allowed; percentages do not add to 100%. TABLE 30 FARE MEDIA ISSUED BY TVMS Medium n % TICKET VENDING MACHINES Single ride 28 96.6 TVMs are a common part of PoP and off-board fare payment. Round trip 12 41.4 The TVMs associated with the first modern LRT operations Day pass 20 69.0 in the late 1970s and early 1980s bear no resemblance to Monthly pass 16 55.2 today's TVMs. In San Diego, for example, the TVMs did not Multiple-day pass 8 27.6 even accept bills. Fares were approaching $1 for most opera- tions, and the Susan B. Anthony dollar coin was expected to Multiple-ride pass 3 10.3 effectively replace the dollar bill. The Anthony coin and the Stored-value fare card--new 2 6.9 quarter were expected to be the basis for cash fare payment Stored-value fare card--reload 4 13.8 for the foreseeable future. The other expectation, at least Other 1 3.4 in San Diego, was that payment by passes would become Total responding agencies 29 increasingly predominant. To a large extent, this occurred. Multiple responses allowed; percentages do not add to 100%. Today's TVMs, as judged by the results of the survey, are much more versatile than those of 30-plus years ago. The survey inquired about practices related to the num- Table 29 shows the range of transactions performed by the ber of TVMs at a station. As indicated in Table 31, 24 of TVMs. There are still some TVMs that accept only coins, the respondents have a formal requirement to maintain at but they represent 24.1% of the operators and are second- least one TVM at a station. Further, seven of those operators ary machines in every case. The operators with TVMs that require two or more at each station. There was one operator accept bills and coins number 25 (86.2%), and 22 (75.9%) with some stations with no off-board TVM. have TVMs that accept credit cards. TABLE 29 TABLE 31 TRANSACTIONS HANDLED BY TVMS REQUIREMENTS FOR TVMS AT A STATION Transaction n % Requirement n % Accept coins only 7 24.1 At least 1 TVM at each station 17 60.7 Accept bills and coins 25 86.2 2 or more at each station 7 25.0 Accept credit cards 22 75.9 No formal requirement, but at least 1 at each 2 7.1 station Accept debit cards 16 55.2 No formal requirement, some stations have no 1 3.6 Make bill change 14 48.3 TVM Other 7 24.1 No formal requirement 1 3.6 Total responding agencies 29 Total responding agencies 28 100.0 Multiple responses allowed; percentages do not add to 100%.