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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP SYNTHESIS 96 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and Project J-7, Topic SA-27 energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISSN 1073-4880 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISBN 978-0-309-22341-6 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to Library of Congress Control Number 2011941918 serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and 2012 Transportation Research Board to introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions COPYRIGHT INFORMATION to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material and based on a study sponsored by the Federal Transit Administra- used herein. tion (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Associa- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to repro- tion (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, duce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit pur- problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and poses. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, under- material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, takes research and other technical activities in response to the needs FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particu- of transit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of lar product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equip- the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses ment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or administrative practices. reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- from CRP. posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act NOTICE of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlin- ing TCRP operating procedures was executed bythe three cooperating The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Tran- organizations: FTA, the National Academy of Sciences, acting through sit Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Develop- Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the ment Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the respon- competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines sibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. and while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- Board, the Transit Development Corporation, the National Research als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel Council, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research of Transportation. problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the tech- TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in nical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Govern- compensation. ing Board of the National Research Council. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Transit Development Corporation, the National Research Council, and nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: transit the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for work- essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. Published reports of the The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: Printed in the United States of America