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56 increased to $100 (to reflect inflation and cost of monthly profit public corporation and comprises five cities: Phoenix, pass). Fare evasion is a civil penalty. Today, TAB is the adju- Tempe, Mesa, Glendale, and Chandler. The METRO Board of dication unit for summonses issued to individuals alleged to Directors comprises a representative appointed from each of have violated NYCT's Rules of Conduct, which, for example, the participating cities, most often an elected official. include fare evasion. The rules are very broad; the following is a representative list: METRO is responsible for the development and operation of the region's high-capacity transit system and opened LRT Refuse to present special fare card to police officer or revenue service in December 2008. At present, this initial transit employee; 20-mi (32-km) line is the only service METRO operates. Place one's foot on the seat of a bus, occupy more than However, the region's Regional Transportation Plan defines one seat; a 57-mi (91.2-km) high-capacity transit system to be built Fail to pay the proper fare; by 2031. This future system contains six extensions, two of Panhandle or beg; which have been adopted as LRT corridors, one to the north- Play a radio audible to others or use amplified devices west and one farther east in Mesa. There is also a modern on platforms; streetcar project planned in the city of Tempe that would feed Drink alcoholic beverages; into the LRT line and would be operated by METRO. Carry any liquid in an open container on a bus; Engage in unauthorized commercial activity; Shown in Figure 34, the METRO Light Rail line links Damage bus property, including graffiti or scratchitti; central Phoenix with the city's eastern side and the eastern Litter or create unsanitary conditions; and communities of Tempe and Mesa [15 mi (24 km) are within Smoke anywhere on NYCT property, including out- the Phoenix and 5 mi (8 km) are within Tempe and Mesa]. door stations. Among the major activity centers served are the Central Avenue employment and business corridor, downtown Phoe- In 2010, 6,521 summonses and 5,516 warnings for fare nix, US Airways Center, Bank One Ballpark, Sky Harbor evasion associated with PoP services were issued. Of those Airport [which is a little over a 1.0-mi (1.6-km) shuttle bus summonses, 90% were convicted and 65% to 75% of the pen- ride from METRO], and the Arizona State University cam- alties were collected. Over time, nearly all fines are recov- pus in Tempe. The line carried 12.6 million riders in 2010, an ered, because an unpaid summons restricts ability to register increase of 11% over its initial year of service in 2009. The a vehicle or obtain a marriage license. Penalties collected are average weekday ridership in 2010 was 39,335; on Saturdays paid to the authority to the credit of a transit crime fund. and Sundays, it was 29,329 and 19,170, respectively. NYPD can and does issue summonses for fare evasion as Basis for Decision to Use Proof-of-Payment Fare well, but NYPD enforcement is primarily in the subway system. Collection Ancillary Benefits Arising from Proof-of-Payment Within the Phoenix region, the Regional Public Transpor- tation Authority (RPTA) has the responsibility for regional NYCT has found benefits associated with use of PoP fare public transportation services and for maintaining the Tran- collection on its SBS routes. The improved speed arising sit Life Cycle Program. Under this program, the RPTA is from off-board fare collection and the special traffic man- charged with administering the fund of regional sales tax agement features provide an operational productivity ben- monies approved in 2004 for public transportation purposes. efit, and the reduced fare evasion rate provides a revenue The RPTA board serves as a unifying umbrella agency for enhancement benefit. In addition, NYCT has found that the transit operations and has adopted "Valley Metro" as the presence of uniformed personnel riding the buses (i.e., the identity for all public transportation services in the greater fare inspectors) and their interaction with the passengers Phoenix area. For example, the fare structure is a policy have had a substantial positive public relations effect. Fur- decision of the RPTA board, but the methods and equipment thermore, "Statistically, both the SBS Bx12 and M15 buses for fare collection are left to the operators. have become the safest, and most crime-free, bus lines in all of New York City" (2). However, the decision to use PoP for the fare collection function for the LRT line was part of the development work before there was a METRO Board of Directors. The use of PHOENIX, ARIZONA--VALLEY METRO RAIL, INC. PoP fare collection was decided on several years into the (METRO LIGHT RAIL) LRT development process and years prior to start of revenue service. No formal action was taken by any policy body. The The light rail transit operation in the Phoenix region is the team's decision was based on what was found to be a stan- responsibility of Valley Metro Rail, Inc., locally referred to as dard practice for new LRT systems to use PoP. The design of METRO Light Rail. The agency was formed in 2002 as a non- the fare collection system then took form from the develop-

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57 FIGURE 34 Phoenix Valley METRO Light Rail Transit route map. ment team's visits to nearby San Diego as well as to several and in Europe. Further, there was no significant media atten- other western U.S. LRT operations to learn from and build tion on the subject. on their various experiences. The development team also relied on TCRP Report 80 for guidance. Fare Media Used and Availability As for fare collection system alternatives, no formal anal- PoP experience on METRO Light Rail indicates that 38% ysis was performed. The development team recognized that of the riders primarily rely on day passes. At 18%, monthly a significant capital cost would accompany a barrier system. employer-issued "platinum passes" make up the second- It was also acknowledged that a barrier-free fare collection largest category of fare media. At 17%, 3-day passes make was "pedestrian-friendly" with Phoenix's at-grade system up the third-largest category. Single-ride and multiple-day and with its numerous sidewalk and street median stations. passes in 3- and 7-day increments are also available. The The team discarded use of an on-board fare collection sys- Valley Metro regional system does not issue transfers. tem because that would result in boarding delays and longer Therefore, the pricing of the all-day passes at double the one- travel times. way fare facilitates its higher usage. The system uses tick- ets with a magnetic stripe for all-day passes, 3-day passes, In general, the recollections of staff who were on the 7-day passes, and 31-day passes. development team in the late 1990s and early 2000s confirm that there was little attention to fare collection system alter- A unique feature of the process to purchase passes at natives, as PoP systems were used both in the United States TVMs is that they need to be activated prior to boarding. The

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58 customer has the option to activate immediately or wait until Proof of Payment--An alert is noting that there is ran- another time. All-day passes and multiple-day passes can be dom fare inspection and that there are penalties for not used for both rail and bus. However, the one-ride fare is valid possessing valid fare. for a single trip on bus or light rail, not both. A single-ride ticket purchased at a TVM can be used on LRT only and is Signs alerting patrons to the need to have proof of a valid activated immediately on purchase. fare in their possession are apparent on station platforms and in the light rail vehicles (LRVs); most are in both English and In addition to tickets and passes available for purchase Spanish. There are numerous signs to alert the passengers and at the TVMs, there are monthly employer-issued platinum to remind them "Valid Transit Pass Required." There are also passes, Arizona State University (ASU)-issued U-passes, signs specifically directed to platinum pass and U-pass riders flash passes for other college students (e.g., full-time stu- reminding them, "Before each ride...Touch, Hold, and Go." dents enrolled in technical, trade, college, or graduate The station platforms are designated as "paid zones," and courses at participating schools), and Tempe-issued youth there are signs alerting passengers that they need valid tickets passes. The platinum passes were developed as a way to to be on the platform. A platform sign reminding patrons of track use through an employee rideshare program. ASU the need to "Tap" their card is displayed in Figure 35. U-passes are subsidized by ASU Parking and Transit Ser- vices, a self-funded auxiliary unit of the university. Fare Enforcement Function Tempe-based youth ages 618 can obtain a free Tempe youth Oversight Management by METRO pass, bearing their photo. The youth pass is subsidized by the city of Tempe. For these passes, riders tap in on an orange-col- The enforcement function is managed by METRO's Chief ored target on the TVM or on a stand-alone verification device. of Safety/Security. Enforcement for Valley METRO is com- plicated because of the multijurisdictional nature of the line. There are 100 TVMs for the 28 stations and transit METRO does not have its own transit police department and, centers, with a minimum of two at each station entry. The instead, manages the function by contract with two separate machines accept bills and coins, credit and debit cards, and organizations: enforcement within the city of Phoenix is provide coin change. performed by the city of Phoenix Police Transit Bureau; for the two East Valley cities, it is performed by a private con- Public Information Regarding Proof-of-Payment System tractor. In both Tempe and Mesa, the city ordinances were updated to authorize "transit enforcement aides" (employed The METRO Ride Guide is widely available, including on by the contractor) to enforce fare violations. Photos of the the Valley METRO website, and includes information on the two forces on duty inspecting fares aboard a train are shown schedule, a map showing station locations, and details on in Figures 36 and 37. how to use the LRT line. Prominent in these details are sec- tions designed to inform patrons about various facets of the The chief of safety/security for METRO schedules reg- fare payment process, for example, ular meetings with each of the units and then meets with the private contractor for Tempe and Mesa and the Phoenix How to Ride --Where to buy passes and how to activate Police Transit Bureau once a month. passes. Fares --The prices of the various fare media. METRO does not set the job descriptions for the police Fare Vending Machines--A step-by-step procedure on assistants in Phoenix. METRO established the job descrip- how to use the TVMs. tions for the fare inspectors in the East Valley and provides FIGURE 35 METRO public information message reminding riders to tap their pass.

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59 FIGURE 36 Phoenix Transit Bureau Police assistant inspecting for PoP on METRO Light Rail. FIGURE 37 Fare inspector within the East Valley cities inspecting for PoP on METRO Light Rail.

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60 uniform written procedures to both. Each of the forces has developed fare inspection manuals to guide operations. As an example, the fare inspection manual for the private con- tractor includes this introduction: This Fare Inspection manual is intended to serve as a guide of the professional discharge of Fare Inspection duties within the Metro East Valley Light Rail. The duties of a Fare Inspector encompass all activities related to enforcement of the "The Proof of Payment Fare System" (POP) employed by the Metro Light Rail System. It is incumbent upon each Custom Protection Officer (CPO) acting as a Fare Inspector to be thoroughly familiar with these instructions, rules, procedures, and responsibilities. The Fare Inspector has responsibilities that are "pseudo law enforcement in nature". However, CPO's are never to portray or conduct themselves as law enforcement officers. (35) City of Phoenix Police In the Phoenix portion of the METRO line, fare inspection is performed by "police assistants" in the Transit Bureau of the Phoenix Police Department who are used primarily for fare enforcement and patrol of park-and-ride facilities. They do not have police powers. They wear light blue uniforms, carry pepper spray, and always perform fare inspection in groups of two, sometimes boarding opposite ends of an LRV and working toward each other. Other tactics are employed, FIGURE 38 METRO Light Rail handheld verification device. such as "sweeping" the platforms prior to a train's arrival and inspecting fares as passengers exit trains. Sometimes a pair Fare inspection sweeps are performed randomly every consists of one police assistant and one police officer. All fare week for 2 h at one station. Department of Homeland Security enforcement personnel carry handheld verification devices officers usually assist, unarmed, wearing polo shirts. A small and issue paper citations. number of warnings are issued at the beginning of the ASU semester; however, the vast majority of evaders are issued To provide additional security on the trains, police officers citations during sweeps. from the city's Transit Bureau will often ride the trains alone but normally not check for fare payment. Police assistants City Codes Provide Enforcement Basis operate on the precinct channel consistent with their location and a shared talk channel with METRO. Fare sweeps/surges Each of the three cities is governed by a city code that allows occur twice a week, during which sergeants lead individual for the enactment of a local law, or ordinance, that deals with teams of officers and police assistants to check passes on fare enforcement. platforms before passengers board. If ridership is light, they perform a reversal during which passengers are checked as Because the city of Phoenix fare enforcement is through they disembark. its Transit Bureau, no changes were required to allow police assistants to enforce fares on METRO Light Rail. How- Private Security for the Cities of Mesa and Tempe ever, both the cities of Tempe and Mesa revised their city ordinances to allow fare enforcement by a private company Within the East Valley cities of Tempe and Mesa, the inspec- other than their police. tion is performed under contract with a private security firm. If backup is required, the city of Tempe or city of Mesa Police Tempe, for example, has enacted an ordinance that deals will be called. In contrast to the Phoenix officers on the line, solely with transit (36 ) and describes a "transit enforcement these officers for the East Valley cities wear white uniform aide" (37 ) as "a paid employee of the police department or shirts and are limited to fare inspection functions. They are an employee of a private entity which has entered into a con- not armed but carry pepper spray. They also use handheld tract with either the police department or a transit provider verification devices shown in Figure 38. Within the city of on behalf of the city." In Tempe's City code Chapter 22, Mesa, they issue paper citations; they use an electronic cita- Article VIII on Transit, there are four sections that describe tion writer in the city of Tempe. when a passenger can be removed from a transit vehicle, the