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FOREWORD Transit administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which informa- tion already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the transit industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire transit community, the Transit Coopera- tive Research Program Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, TCRP Project J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute a TCRP report series, Synthesis of Transit Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE The objective of this synthesis was to document the state of the practice in terms of expe- riences related to the application of proof-of-payment (PoP) on transit systems in North By Donna L. Vlasak America and internationally, updating the information provided in the 2002 TCRP Report Senior Program Officer 80: A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection. Transportation The subject is more complex than evasion rates. It involves related subjects such as Research Board inspection rates, enforcement techniques, duties of fare inspection personnel, adjudication processes, and the kinds of penalties involved for evasion. In addition, there is the need for acquiring capital equipment and, perhaps, handheld verification devices if smartcards are used. PoP fare collection has evolved to where it can be found on bus rapid transit, regular bus service, heavy rail transit, streetcars, passenger ferries, and commuter rail. A literature review, organized into five issue groupings related to PoP fare collection, is provided, as well as the results of a selected, on-line survey of transit agencies in the United States and Canada that yielded a 100% response rate (33 of 33 responses). Seven case studies offer detailed reviews of transit agency PoP fare collection experiences in Buffalo and New York City, New York; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles and San Francisco, California; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Phoenix, Arizona. Six areas deserving future study are identified as well. Thomas F. Larwin, Lee Engineering, San Diego, California, and Yung Koprowski, Lee Engineering, Phoenix, Arizona, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report, under the guidance of a panel of experts in the subject area. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.
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