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72 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS For purposes of confirming the state of practice of off- A wealth of material is available from transit opera- board PoP fare collection, three primary efforts were tors that use PoP fare collection, such as policies and ordi- undertaken: a literature review including reports prepared nances, performance reports, SOPs, manuals, audits, and by or for transit operators, a survey of operators using or special reports. These materials are generally available to considering use of PoP fare collection, and detailed case other operators and provide a source of research not often studies of seven operators that use PoP for one or more available in the public forum. As a product of this study, a services within their system. reference and resource base has been established within the TRB Committee on Light Rail Transit (Standing Committee This chapter summarizes the results of these three efforts, AP075). The majority of resources collected in this study including lessons from the literature search, findings from and listed in the bibliography have been transferred to the the survey, and some common practices presented from the committee and are available on the committee's website: case study operators. Following these summaries are recom- mendations for additional research. Fare evasion and fare abuses make for popular headlines in the local news media. It is important for PoP operators SUMMARY: LITERATURE SEARCH to be proactive and have a program and strategy for deal- ing with the media on fare abuse issues. Such a strategy can The literature search was based on five themes: experiences include preparation of a regular management report that with implementation, BRT applications, measuring evasion, presents the data and trends related to fare evasion and a managing for PoP, and facing media attention. summary of enforcement efforts being undertaken. With regard to implementation, the 2002 document TCRP Report 80: A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier- SUMMARY: SURVEY OF PROOF-OF-PAYMENT Free Fare Collection remains a valuable resource for any OPERATORS transit operator using PoP fare collection, and especially, for any operator considering its use. Although the data For this study, an online survey was prepared and distributed in the report are generally dated, most of the guidelines to 33 transit operators in North America. A 100% response in the toolkit remain practical. Enforcement practices rate was obtained. Of these operators, 30 (90.9%) employed are an essential part of the PoP fare collection function PoP fare collection for one or more of their services in 2010 and, as such, must address the role of discretion in issu- 2011. Further, 29 of the 30 are either not considering any ing citations for fare evasion. The regular presence of uni- changes to PoP use (17) or are in the process of implementing formed officers on transit vehicles is likely to be seen by PoP on more services (12). Of the three operators not using riders as the best way to provide them with a safe feeling PoP, two were considering using PoP for future services. while riding. When PoP fare collection was initiated in the late 1970s On the matter of BRT, PoP fare collection has been found and early 1980s in North America, its application was largely to have application, especially when ridership numbers are limited to LRT operations. In this study's survey, the range high enough. Whether it will prove to be cost-effective will of transit modes using PoP was found to be diverse: LRT, largely depend on the loading volumes at the BRT stops/sta- BRT, heavy rail transit, commuter rail, bus (non-BRT), pas- tions and the need for boarding at the rear doors to ensure a senger ferry, and streetcars. The survey found that the 30 relatively high operating speed. properties operate 91 routes that use PoP fare collection. The management of the fare inspection function and the The survey results are organized into nine functional areas: control of fare evasion will significantly benefit from collec- tion of sufficient fare evasion data to permit disaggregate 1. Organizational and Personnel Aspects of the Fare analysis (i.e., by time of day, day of week, and location). Inspection Function --Sixty percent of PoP fare