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78 REFERENCES 1. Multisystems, Inc., with Mundle Associates and Parsons Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, Transportation Group, Inc., TCRP Report 80: A Toolkit D.C., Jan. 2327, 2011, 27 pp. for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection, Trans- 12.PriceWaterhouseCoopers, Fare Evasion Internal Audit, portation Research Board, National Research Council, prepared for Vancouver TransLink, Sep. 2007, 23 pp. Washington, D.C., 2002, 219 pp. 13.Schumann, J.W., "Status of North American Light Rail 2. DeMarino, V.A., "NYC Transit Select Bus Service (SBS) Transit Systems, Year 2009 Update," Joint International and the Role of NYCT Department of Security--Fare Light Rail Conference, Growth and Renewal, Transporta- Enforcement," Memorandum to Robert Bergen, Feb. 5, tion Research Board of the National Academies, Wash- 2011, 11 pp. ington, D.C., July 2010, pp. 314. 3. Watry, D.J. and P. Straus, "Muni Metro Goes POP: Imple- 14.Niagara Frontier Transportation Metro System, Inc., "Job menting Proof of Payment Fare Collection on Muni Description, Metro Fare Inspector," Revised Dec. 7, 1983. Metro," Light Rail: Investment for the Future--8th Joint Conference on Light Rail Transit, Dallas, Tex., Nov. 15.State of New York, New York Public Authorities Title 1115, 2000, 14 pp. 11-A - Section 1299-EEE, 1984. 4.NRG Research Group, Transit Smart Card, SkyTrain 16.State of New York, New York Codes, Rules and Regula- Controlled Access, and Security Research, prepared for tions Title 21 Miscellaneous, Chapter XXIII Niagara Vancouver TransLink, June 18, 2008, 115 pp. Frontier Transportation Authority, Section 1151.21, "Fare Evasion." 5. National BRT Institute, "Fare Collection," In Character- istics of Bus Rapid Transit for Decision-Making, National 17.State of New York, New York Codes, Rules and Regula- BRT Institute, Tampa, Fla., Feb. 2009, pp. 2-612-79. tions Title 21 Miscellaneous, Chapter XXIII Niagara Fron- tier Transportation Authority, Section 1151.22, "Attempted 6.Votaw, N.J., Does Off-Board Fare Collection Using Fare Evasion." Ticket Vending Machines and Proof-of-Payment Make the Most Sense Along Planned VTA Bus Rapid Transit 18.ACT21, "LRT Station Fare Barrier Study," letter report Lines 522 and 523 in Santa Clara County?, A Planning prepared for DART, Bruce S. Russell to Eduardo Ugarte, Report Submitted to the Faculty of the Department of Nov. 13, 2002, 7 pp. Urban and Regional Planning, San Jose State University, 19.State of Texas, Texas Transportation Code, Section 452.0611, Dec. 2010, 172 pp. Enforcement of Fares and Other Charges; Penalties, added 7. Levinson, H.S., et al., "Fare Collection Options," In by Acts 2003, 78th Leg., Ch. 1113, Section 1, eff. Sep. 1, TCRP Report 90 Bus Rapid Transit Volume 2: Implemen- 2003. tation Guidelines, 2003, Section 8.3, Transportation 20.State of Texas, Texas Transportation Code, Section 452.0612, Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, Fare Enforcement Officers, added by Acts 2003, 78th Leg., D.C., pp. 8-68-11. Ch. 1113, Section 1, eff. Sep. 1, 2003. 8. Clarke, R.V., S. Contre, and G. Petrossian, "Deterrence 21.DART Police Department, General Order Number 03-29, and Fare Evasion: Results of a Natural Experiment," Effective Date Dec. 1, 2003, 7 pp. Security Journal, Vol. 23, No. 1, Oct. 2009, pp. 517. 22.DART, Proposed FY 2011 Business Plan, Aug. 6, 2010, p. 9. Lee, J., "Uncovering San Francisco Muni's Proof-of-Pay- AW-5. ment Patterns to Help Reduce Fare Evasion," prepared for the 2011 Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research 23.SCRTD Board Agenda Report, Consider Approval of the Board, Washington, D.C., Jan. 2327, 2011, 17 pp. Use of a Barrier-Free Fare System for the MOS-1 Seg- ment of Metro Rail, Southern California Rapid Transit 10.Transportation Management & Design, Inc., LA Metro District, Los Angeles, Nov. 19, 1986. Fare Evasion Assessment, prepared for LA Metro Board, Oct. 25, 2007, 16 pp. 24.Metro Board Meeting Agenda Report 36, "Metro Rail Gating," Feb. 28, 2008. 11.Reddy, A., J. Kuhls, and A. Lu, "Measuring and Control- ling Subway Fare Evasion: Improving the Safety and 25.State of California Penal Code Section 640. Security at New York City Transit Authority," prepared 26.Metro Operations Committee Meeting Agenda Report, for the 2011 Annual Meeting of the Transportation "Transit Adjudication Bureau (Transit Court)," Feb. 11, 2011.

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79 27.Metro Transit, "Guidelines and Procedures for Fare Col- 35.METRO East Valley Light Rail, "Fare Inspection Officer lection System," July 2010, 19 pp. Duties," June 1, 2010. 28.Metro Transit, Light Rail SOP #1100.01, "Fare Enforce- 36.City of Tempe Ordinance, Chapter 22, Article VIII, ment," May 2009. "Transit." 29.Metropolitan Council, Hiawatha Light Rail Fare Compli- 37.City of Tempe Ordinance, Chapter 26, Article I. ance, Program Evaluation and Audit, Mar. 21, 2008, 22 pp. 38.SFMTA Finance and Information Technology Division, 30.Metropolitan Council, Northstar Commuter Rail Fare "Transit Fare Inspector Job Description," undated. Compliance and Ridership Estimates, Program Evalua- 39.San Francisco Budget Analyst, "Management Audit of tion and Audit, St. Paul, Minn., Oct. 4, 2010, 22 pp. the San Francisco Transportation Agency Proof of Pay- 31.State of Minnesota, "Crimes Involving Transit," Minne- ment Program," May 27, 2009, 172 pp. sota Statute Section 609.855, latest revision as of 2004. 40.San Francisco Examiner, "Higher Muni Fare-Evasion 32.N YCT, "Understanding Fare Evasion on NYCT Bus Fines Pitched," May 18, 2009. Route Bx12 Prior to Select Bus Service Implementation: 41.San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, Finance Brief," Aug. 8, 2008. and Information Technology Division, Proof-of-Payment 33.N YCT, "Understanding Fare Evasion on NYCT Bus Study: Buses, Light Rail Vehicles and Streetcars, Oct. 20, Route M15 Prior to Select Bus Service Implementation: 2009, 42 pp. Brief," June 23, 2010. 42.San Francisco Traffic Code Sections 7.2 and 7.3, relevant 34.State of New York, NYS Public Authorities Law, Article transit provisions. 5, Title 9 New York Transit Authority Section 1209-a.