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CONTENTS 1SUMMARY 5 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Proof-of-Payment Fare Collection in North America, 5 Study Objectives, 5 Study Process and Technical Approach, 5 Report Organization, 8 10 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Experiences with Proof-of-Payment Implementation, 10 Bus Rapid Transit Applications, 11 Measuring Fare Evasion, 11 Managing Proof-of-Payment Within the Transit Organization, 12 Fare Collection and Fare Evasion in the Media, 13 14 CHAPTER THREE SURVEY OF TRANSIT OPERATORS USING PROOF-OF-PAYMENT FARE COLLECTION Organizational and Personnel Aspects of the Fare Enforcement Function, 14 Monitoring and Inspecting for Fare Payment, 15 Measuring Performance, 16 Legal Aspects and Adjudication, 21 Proof-of-Payment Fare Collection Operations, 23 Fare Media and Fare Purchase Options, 25 Ticket Vending Machines, 26 Smart Cards and Stored-Value Cards, 27 Transit Industry Pulse Regarding Proof-of-Payment Fare Collection, 27 29 CHAPTER FOUR CASE STUDIES Buffalo, New York--Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA), 29 Dallas, Texas--Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART), 33 Los Angeles, California--Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, (LA Metro), 38 MinneapolisSt. Paul, Minnesota--Metro Transit, 45 New York City, New York--New York City Transit (NYCT), 51 Phoenix, Arizona--Valley Metro Rail, Inc. (METRO Light Rail), 56 San Francisco, California--San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency (SFMTA, Muni), 61 Summary of Case Study Operators, 69 72 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS Summary: Literature Search, 72 Summary: Survey of Proof-of-Payment Operators, 72 Summary: Common Practices from Case Studies, 73 Suggestions for Additional Research, 74 Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

OCR for page 9
76ACRONYMS 78REFERENCES 80BIBLIOGRAPHY 82 APPENDIX A SURVEY INSTRUMENT 96 APPENDIX B PARTICIPATING AGENCIES 98 APPENDIX C EXAMPLE OF STATUTORY PROVISIONS CONCERNING FARE EVASION ENFORCEMENT 102 APPENDIX D EXAMPLE PERFORMANCE REPORT 103 APPENDIX E EXAMPLE OF A MANUAL AND STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPS) 117 APPENDIX F EXAMPLE OF ENFORCEMENT/INSPECTOR JOB DESCRIPTION