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Introduction and Purpose 3 supply, and distribute the products and services customers want. Seamlessly integrated trans- Just as perceptions actions are the essence of modern supply chains. Businesses expect urban transportation sys- tems to work well with limited engagement on their part. of goods move- To urban transportation planners, freight represents just a small portion of the traffic volume ment differ among they must accommodate in network planning. Nonetheless, commercial truck traffic often various stakehold- exhibits disproportionate social costs and divergent trip patterns. To a carrier or freight service provider (e.g., trucking firm, railroad, package courier, munic- ers, the term freight ipal waste hauler, etc.) the metropolitan region is a highly competitive market. Trucks are the conveys different most prominent carriers of goods moving within the urban environment. Trucking company meanings to differ- success and profitability is dependent upon performance and productivity, using facilities infrequently designed for the operating requirements of modern trucking equipment. ent people. In the To community planners, urban goods movement is higher maintenance costs, specialized most general sense, enforcement requirements, noise, and airborne emissions. The real and social costs related to freight is the term goods movement are often imposed by activities and companies outside the community plan- ners' jurisdiction, moving in vehicles whose content and purpose are probably obscure, and applied to moving whose function seems outside the residentially oriented priorities that consume their attention. goods from one To private developers and landlords, accommodating the movement of goods is often an after- place to another, thought, and, whenever possible, a cost that should be borne by others. To elected officials, freight is one element of an essential public service that often collides with by any mode-- other public transportation services that voting citizens support. It is often said that "freight highway, rail, ocean doesn't vote." Politically, freight interests gained clout in some locations, and at some levels, or air. It is also a but organized freight interests remain a rarity at the local level. To urban citizens, freight is an impediment to a faster, safer commute home, and is character- term associated ized by noisy, dusty activity centers that diminish the urban experience and release harmful with the money emissions that raise health risks. Goods moving in and through the urban environment are car- paid for transport- ried by menacing vehicles competing for lane space and impose long waits at railroad grade crossings. In short, citizens view freight operations as a nuisance and a threat to their health. ing goods. Within To citizens, the quality-of-life benefits from moving goods efficiently and reliably are largely the logistics indus- invisible. try, the term freight As these perspectives make plain, views regarding urban goods movement are highly diver- most often refers to gent and largely negative. This guidebook is intended to improve the understanding of goods movement, strengthen its value in public planning, and improve its perception among public the long-haul com- decisionmakers. This guidebook discusses methods for integrating freight issues into metropol- ponent of a supply itan planning and regulatory processes and describes techniques and tools that are of practical chain. The long- use to local decisionmakers. haul linkages of a supply chain are Why Read the Guidebook nominally intercity, According to USDOT, both population and the freight needs of that population will continue port to transport growing in the future. The annual tons of freight moving per capita are expected to increase from terminal, terminal 55 tons in 2010 to 70 tons in 2040--an increase of 27 percent. The American Association of State to terminal, inter- Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) forecasts that for every two trucks on the road today, by 2030 there will be an additional truck to carry the expected growth in food, consumer plant, plant to dis- goods, and manufacturing equipment. tribution center Although freight logistics is a key component of the economy today, like the baker labors at (DC),DC to DC, the back of the store--it is largely invisible to citizens and the people they elect. Previous research port to rail inter- has noted the need for building public awareness about the key role that freight plays in every- day lives, and working together and organizing to craft solutions (Strauss-Wieder 2003). The modal yard, or air- guidebook is intended to help public policymakers understand the reasons for raising public port to DC.