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CHAPTER 5 Regulations Impacting Urban Goods Movement Prior sections of this guidebook explain the importance of efficient freight movement to the local and regional economy, the urban quality of life, and livability; describe who, how, where, and why freight moves; detail urban supply chains; and discuss how to find, collect, and analyze freight data. This chapter assumes the guidebook user is an urban planner or planning official with an under- standing of basic planning concepts and the planning process. Its focus is limited to identifying urban planning codes, ordinances, regulations, and policies found to affect mobility and access for urban goods movements and explaining their impacts. This focus includes Design standards, Infrastructure design, Land use and zoning, and Urban truck regulations. Overview Urban land-use codes, ordinances, and regulations--including zoning--are designed to protect public health, safety, and welfare. They minimize conflicts between incompatible land uses within the jurisdictions that adopt them and are intended to create adequate separation between uses, and allow for the highest and best use of the land. Zoning regulations also protect adjacent properties from harm or infringements related to noise, light, air quality, safety, and property value. Conven- tional land-use and zoning regulations address density, lot size, dimensions, building size and set- backs, street geometrics, access points and driveways, parking standards, roadway and sidewalk design, layout, truck loading facilities, and use of the land. Overall, they protect properties and their values by ensuring livability and the quality of life of those who live and work in the area. Local governments (including city, township, and county governments) throughout most of the United States have the authority and responsibility for land use and zoning. Local govern- ments also develop and enforce local regulations relating to building codes, design standards, and building permits. In most states, the responsibility and authority over local roadways and bridges also rests with local governments. In urban areas, mobility and access for all vehicles, especially trucks, is constrained by the dense proximity of buildings and limited space for parking (see Exhibit 5-1). Land is valuable, and often roadways that had been alleyways for freight deliveries or service provisions such as trash collection are increasingly being converted to store fronts, sidewalk cafs, or alternate access points for pedestrians. In high-rise buildings, uses are stacked vertically, and access means not only the need to find parking space for deliveries, but freight elevators as well. The impacts sum- marized have consequences to both the quality of life of residents and the economic "bottom line" of companies doing business in the urban area. 41