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42 Guidebook for Understanding Urban Goods Movement Exhibit 5-1. Truck unloading in alleyway. Source: Photo by Halcrow. Design Standards Local government planning agencies typically regulate building codes and design standards. Building codes deal with how a building is constructed. These codes focus on establishing require- ments to ensure that a building is safe in terms of structural capacity. Included are codes for electri- cal, heating, ventilation, fire safety, plumbing, and so on inside buildings. Design standards relevant to urban goods movements deal with issues such as the number, location, and design of loading docks and freight elevators, as well as parking lots and related facilities on the site. Loading Docks Older buildings were not designed with loading docks and freight elevators to accommodate recent truck designs or the increased consumer demand for goods. In many, but not all, juris- dictions, design standards have been updated for current needs. Inadequate design of loading docks servicing urban buildings may result in Blocking roadways: Limited docking space; inadequate turning bay radii; and docking spaces that do not match the height, width, or length requirements of current trucks can have sev- eral unintended impacts. These may result in trucks spending more time on the streets wait- ing to dock and adding to congestion. They may also result in trucks not being able to back completely off a street to load or unload, and thereby blocking the street (see Exhibit 5-2). Increased congestion: Lack of adequate dock space and freight elevators inside buildings can result in trucks requiring additional time for pickup and delivery of goods and increase con- gestion. If building dock space is too small for current trucks (see Exhibit 5-3), this may force the use of more, smaller vehicles that add to congestion. This also affects the economic effi- ciency of the businesses delivering to the building. Parking Areas Another design issue relates to urban truck parking areas and parking lots. Local design stan- dards may require all parking areas to be paved to control dust and related air pollution from vehicles driving on these surfaces. The cost to pave large areas for truck parking is high, and urban land owners may want to limit this expense and request a variance. These competing needs to balance cost and air quality may not impact mobility and access; they have been identified as

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Regulations Impacting Urban Goods Movement 43 Exhibit 5-2. Limited docking space and blocked streets. Source: Photo by Wilbur Smith Associates. Exhibit 5-3. Docking space with height mismatch (note position of dock against mud flaps). Source: Wilbur Smith Associates.