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44 Guidebook for Understanding Urban Goods Movement a conflict area between planners and industry. Their economic impact on the freight industry should be acknowledged and considered by local decisionmakers. Urban Infrastructure Design Depending on state law and the functional classification of a roadway, the authority and responsibility for the design of local roadways may rest with a local government. It is recog- nized that some state DOTs (West Virginia, Virginia, and a few others) have authority over local roadway design. Federal and most state roadway design regulations are intended to accommodate trucks. Unfortunately, in some cases older roadways and bridges and local road- ways do not meet these design standards (see Exhibit 5-4). Older urban intersections, narrow streets, and alleyways may restrict truck mobility causing trucks to hit poles or signs located on corners or to drive over sidewalks to make turns. In some urban areas, trucks entering a railyard, port, or other private-sector intermodal facility must travel through privately owned parking lots and local facilities over old urban roadways that are difficult to negotiate. Out- dated or insufficient infrastructure design can impact urban freight mobility and access to buildings and facilities and result in Increased congestion: The additional time trucks may require negotiating turns, avoiding low bridges, and so on may result in congestion and backups on the roadways. Exhibit 5-4. Urban infrastructure design: inadequate curbside parking and inadequate turning radii at intersections. Source: Wilbur Smith Associates.