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Regulations Impacting Urban Goods Movement 45 Economic impacts: Trucks traveling through infrastructure with height restrictions, weight restrictions, inadequate turning radii, and along narrow roadways results in reduced efficiency and limits growth and development of urban businesses. Land Use and Zoning Many, but not all, local jurisdictions enact zoning regulations. Zoning classifies uses to provide compatibility and minimize impacts of land use within and adjacent to each zone. Typical zoning categories include: residential, commercial, business or employment center, industrial, office, insti- tutional, agricultural, mixed use, planned unit development (PUD), and other. Each zoning cate- gory may include various densities and types of uses. Urban areas are made up of a variety of land uses covered by various zoning regulations, each with unique goods movement needs and impacts. Impacts on goods movements for the following four types of urban areas are discussed: Urban city center/central business district (CBD), Urban residential area, Urban manufacturing district, and First-ring suburb. City Center/CBD An urban city center/CBD is characterized by dense, mixed-use development. CBDs typically include high-rise structures that (1) are occupied and used individually or (2) include a combi- nation of uses such as apartment and condominium housing, business offices, restaurants, mar- kets, entertainment venues, and retail establishments. Impacts of goods movements in urban city centers include congestion, noise, air quality, and safety. Mobility for all vehicles, but especially large ones, is constrained by the dense proximity of buildings and limited space for parking. Because CBDs are often the oldest sections in a city, they may have narrow streets, limited docking space, limited turning radii, and height restrictions. Urban Residential Area Urban residential areas, such as the Bronx and Queens in New York City or Georgetown in Washington, D.C., are primarily residential areas with multi-story apartment buildings, row houses, condos, and single-family homes with limited setbacks or space between them. These areas include a mix of uses such as restaurants and shopping areas, schools, libraries, medical facilities, and neighborhood parks. Truck routing, parking, and delivery time restrictions are often enacted in these areas to sep- arate truck traffic impacts from residents and to reduce noise and improve air quality. Impacts include congestion, noise, air quality, and safety issues. Because the area is primarily residential in use, aesthetics, safety, and the desire to protect land values are priorities. Residents do not want trucks driving past their homes or parking in front of their homes. Mobility is lim- ited because of the proximity of buildings and the limited space and time permitted to park while handling goods. The intended effect is to improve the quality of life for the residents of the area. The unintended effect is more small commercial vehicles making more deliveries to the increas- ing demands of modern consumers. Urban Manufacturing District Urban manufacturing districts include warehouses, distribution centers, and waterfront and port areas. Manufacturing, warehousing, and distribution businesses were common industries

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46 Guidebook for Understanding Urban Goods Movement Exhibit 5-5. Milltown lofts adjacent to Hulsey intermodal railyard, near downtown Atlanta. Source: Wikimapia. that made up the core of early urbanized areas. Prior to the construction of urban Interstate high- way facilities, people tended to live near industrial facilities to be close to jobs. Many older urban areas still include active manufacturing centers with nearby residential housing and businesses that support them. Today, the attraction of waterfront living is pushing upscale residential and commercial development into working port areas like Cleveland, Ohio; Baltimore, Maryland; and Savannah, Georgia. Also, the simple desire to be close to the city core continues to place new residential high-rise construction adjacent to warehousing and terminal facilities in many urban areas (see Exhibit 5-5). Urban manufacturing operations typically need large trucks to have access to industrial facilities. Congestion, noise, pollution, and safety are major concerns, and the mobility for tractor- semi-trailer combinations with 53-foot vans is often challenged by old infrastructure with low clearances and short turning radii. As a result, large trucks may travel through residential areas raising conflicts between residents and businesses. Planners and local decisionmakers recognize the conflicts between these competing, and somewhat incompatible, uses. They may impose truck routing restrictions in these areas as well as limitations on delivery times and idling. These restrictions add to peak-hour congestion, noise, and air pollution. For manufacturing and distribution businesses located inside urban areas, restrictions on the expansion or development of complementary facilities adjacent to existing manufacturing or distribution businesses can limit potential growth and business productivity. High land prices are one reason freight service providers do not locate new facilities in or near urban core areas. There may also be land-use restrictions against freight terminal operations. Zoning restrictions may result in trucks making longer trips to deliver their goods, thereby raising costs, increasing fuel use, and increasing emissions. First-Ring Suburb Older suburbs, often referred to as first-ring suburbs, began to develop as motor vehicles and trolleys offered people the option of living away from the noise and pollution of the manufac- turing and warehousing that existed in central cities. Today, these older suburban areas have continued to grow by increasing density. Many first-ring suburbs have continued to grow to include office centers, shopping malls, and big-box retailers.