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Regulations Impacting Urban Goods Movement 47 As residents migrated from the central cities to suburbs for a quieter lifestyle, many commer- cial activities soon followed. Noise, pollution, and safety related to trucks and rail grade cross- ings continue to be issues in many urban areas. Although dock space for businesses located in suburbs may be less of a problem, truck routing and delivery time restrictions can be issues. To accommodate the concerns of residents, prohibitive truck routing and delivery time restrictions are often adopted to retain quiet neighborhood characteristics and preserve the quality of life for residents. Urban Truck Regulations At the urban level, regulations over commercial vehicle operations fall into several categories: Route restrictions, Commercial vehicle parking regulation/curbside access, Delivery windows/time-of-day restrictions, Size and weight regulation, and Emission controls. Although some cities also may enforce safety regulations, by and large, truck safety compli- ance is handled by state and federal jurisdictions through the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Assis- tance Program (MCSAP). Prior to discussing various forms of commercial vehicle regulations, it is important to note that commercial vehicles are defined differently across jurisdictions. A consistent definition for a commercial vehicle is a necessary prerequisite to a regulatory framework for enforcing truck regulations. Within an urbanized area, the potential for conflicting commercial vehicle defini- tions among neighboring cities and counties is not uncommon. Trucks are defined in a number of different ways, depending on the regulating entity. Gener- ally, trucks are defined in one or more of the following ways: Vehicle purpose: Trucks can be defined as commercial vehicles that haul goods, generally used in the context of defining other commercial vehicles, such as buses and taxis. Vehicle dimensions: Federal and state laws typically regulate commercial vehicles according to length, width, and height. Urban areas with restrictive roadway geometry or low clearances also may impose dimensional restrictions on some routes. Number of axles/tires: Many urban areas define trucks as commercial vehicles designed to carry property and having more than two axles or more than four tires. Vehicle weight and capacity: Trucks conforming to federal regulations are typically registered with a maximum gross vehicle weight that includes the weight of the truck plus the weight of the cargo. Many definitions identify trucks as any cargo-carrying commercial vehicle rated at a particular gross weight or higher. Truck Routing Historically, many urban areas in the United States have designated truck routes as a means of keeping trucks out of residential neighborhoods. However, from the perspective of facilitating freight movements, truck routes should be designated, designed, operated, and maintained to accommodate trucks. The designation of local truck routes should serve the following purposes: Increase freight transit reliability, Reduce congestion and provide congestion relief from incidents on major arterials, Improve safety, and Reduce truck emissions.

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48 Guidebook for Understanding Urban Goods Movement Traffic design issues often contribute to a less reliable freight network. By developing a defined truck route network and understanding the specific roles played by key "last mile" routes, high- way improvement strategies are likely to be successful. From a design standpoint, designated truck routes should have adequate turning radii at intersections and adequate horizontal and vertical clearances, as well as bridge and pavement integrity to handle heavy loads. Operationally, signal timing plans on truck routes should account for trucks' slower acceleration speeds to pre- In 2008, the NYC- vent repeated stopping once up to speed. DOT petitioned the Failing to designate truck routes, or providing inadequate signage, may result in FHWA to conduct a truck route sign- Trucks on residential streets: Many designated truck routes have been instituted to keep trucks out of residential neighborhoods. If regulations or signs are not adequate, or if roadway sections age pilot program where trucks are permitted do not connect to each other, this can increase circuitry and may that would allow result in trucks inadvertently winding through streets that are primarily residential. the city to experi- Increased environmental impacts: Restrictions on what roadways trucks may use could result ment with new in additional miles traveled and increases in fuel use, noise, and air pollution. In some cases, truck route sign these inefficiencies are increased by a lack of good signage directing truckers to permitted routes. In some jurisdictions, only non-truck roadways are designated and the lack of a clear designs to make and direct route that a truck may use to get from one point to another results in additional signs more identi- miles traveled and increases in fuel use, noise, and air pollution. fiable to truck drivers. The first Parking and Loading Zones generation of CBDs and urban corridors with high commercial activity often experience significant parking experimental truck challenges, especially for trucks. This includes on-street parking (curbside) as well as off-street route signs incor- parking (on commercial properties). The inability to find parking near the delivery point slows porated a green down delivery for multiple-stop routes, the penalty being higher cost and diminished service circle, the univer- (delivery services only serve areas that are viable from an economic standpoint). The decline in sally accepted sym- service ultimately impacts downtown business vitality. Ill-managed curbside access also raises the cost of goods to consumers; in many large urban areas delivery fleets pay millions of dollars bol for positive each year in parking fines--a cost of doing business. guidance, into the existing conven- On-Street Parking and Curbside Management tional sign. A pro- Most curbside parking, even for commercial purposes, is designed for small vehicles such as hibitive route sign pickup trucks, vans, and single-unit trucks. Curbside management can be enhanced using a vari- ety of methods, including strict enforcement of designated commercial parking zones for use by incorporated the commercial vehicles only, providing larger curbside parking spaces, increasing the frequency of red circle and diag- commercial curbside spaces, designating commercial curb parking during peak periods, and onal line. The pilot peak-hour pricing mechanisms to regulate parking behavior. signage program Off-Street Parking was implemented Parking on commercial properties that attract significant truck traffic can be a concern in in the Hunts Point many urban areas. Retail strip malls, shopping malls, hotels and recreational areas, convention area of the Bronx centers, and office parks often do not plan for truck parking needs. Building codes for urban in 2010, and NYC- commercial properties should include specifications for truck parking and loading/unloading. DOT is now moni- Typically, designated loading zone locations and times curbside truck parking is permitted are toring truck route determined by the local jurisdiction. Lack of an adequate number of spaces for loading or curb- compliance in the side parking, parking time limits, and idling time limits may result in project area and a Increased congestion: Inadequate curbside parking spaces and/or parking restrictions for control area adja- loading and unloading can result in more congestion as trucks circle the block looking for cent to it. curbside access to park near their delivery locations.

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Regulations Impacting Urban Goods Movement 49 Double parking: Increasingly, overnight couriers guarantee delivery services that require trips to central city offices during peak work hours. It is common for delivery drivers who cannot find space at the curb to double-park to avoid missing delivery schedules committed to by their business models. In some urban areas like New York, carriers routinely pay more than a mil- lion dollars per year in parking tickets for double parking. This also adds to urban congestion. Delivery Windows/Time-of-Day Restrictions City codes and regulations may restrict the time of day that trucks may stop to pick up and deliver goods, or in some cases raise the cost of parking during peak periods. Most cities that apply time-of-day restrictions do so to prevent deliveries during hours when pedestrian traffic is heaviest or during peak commuter periods. Some cities have applied daytime delivery bans on specific types of goods such as hazardous materials, or during special events such as the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. Some communities have started using retractable bollards, a prac- tice started in Europe to restrict trucks from pedestrian ways and other areas during daytime hours (see Exhibit 5-6). Restrictions on delivery times may result in Impacts on congestion and emissions: If executed properly, delivery time-of-day restrictions have shown to increase the speed and efficiency of delivery routes given that deliveries are restricted to times when congestion is at its lowest, resulting in lower congestion and emis- sions. However, some communities have implemented mid-day or nighttime restrictions that potentially move more truck traffic to peak hours, increasing congestion and emissions. Sim- ilar to parking restrictions, time-of-day delivery restrictions may also result in trucks "stag- ing" or waiting outside downtown areas. Increases to receiver costs: One of the biggest objections to nighttime delivery schemes has been the additional costs for nighttime staff, and off-hour security for businesses receiving goods. Truck Size and Weight Regulation Congress and FHWA have defined the nation's primary truck networks from a policy stand- point for encouraging interstate commerce: The National Highway System (NHS) includes the Exhibit 5-6. Delivery restriction bollards. Source: www.bollard.info.

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50 Guidebook for Understanding Urban Goods Movement Interstate Highway System and other highways designated by U.S.DOT, in cooperation with the states, local officials, and MPOs. This comprises approximately 160,000 miles of roadway important to the nation's economy, defense, and mobility. Off the NHS, states, counties, and municipalities have the authority to set load limits on roadways under their jurisdictions. Most often, state authorities establish the governing weight limits and vehicle dimensions that apply in each state. Local authorities may impose additional limits, typically on individual routes or seasonal restrictions (e.g., spring load limits), or to protect critical infrastructure (e.g., bridge postings). Pavement Wear Pavement wear is determined primarily by axle loads--or more precisely, the weight "foot- print" of the vehicle's tire contact with the pavement. Traditionally, enforcing truck weight laws has involved using static roadside scales or mobile enforcement scales. For many urban areas, the space required to pull over and weigh trucks prohibits efficient enforcement. However, stud- ies have shown that the cost of overweight trucks can significantly outweigh the cost of greater enforcement resources. Truck weight data from urban areas suggests violations most often occur among single-unit trucks such as refuse and construction vehicles. Bridge Stress Bridge stress is primarily impacted by the total weight of the vehicle--i.e., the total suspended weight on the bridge structure. On short bridges, long vehicles will likely not transfer the total weight of the vehicle to the bridge at one time, while shorter vehicles transfer more weight to individual bridge members. Given the types of trucks that typically operate in urban environ- ments, overweight, short trucks can cause premature bridge deterioration. One of the most frequent causes of bridge damage in urban areas results from commercial vehicles striking bridges and overpasses (see Exhibit 5-7). An investigation by New York DOT and the City of New York found that in 2008 there were 98 incidents of commercial vehicles striking bridges in New York City alone. Bridge strikes can result in death or injury, infrastruc- ture damage, road closures, and other operational disruptions (e.g., strikes to rail bridges can close rail lines). NYCDOT is addressing bridge strike problems through enforcement of truck routes, education and outreach, reflective signing of low bridges, and the use of technology to monitor those bridges most prone to strikes. Truck size and weight regulations were conceived originally as a means of maintaining the integrity of quality roadways. However, truck weight and dimension also affect vehicle handling characteristics such as stability and control. Operating a truck beyond limitations established in law can severely degrade stopping ability and put excess wear on vehicle components such as brakes, tires, and suspension systems. Overloads also degrade the ability of a heavy truck to accel- erate into traffic or through intersections or railroad crossings, or to maintain vehicle stability in high-speed, tight curves. Truck Idling Regulations Since passage of the Clean Air Act in 1963, U.S. federal emissions standards over light-, medium-, and heavy-duty trucks have become increasingly strict. In the past decade, new diesel engine standards, as well as EPA standards for low-sulfur diesel fuels, have continued to cut emis- sions despite the growth in commercial vehicle miles of travel. Although stricter federal regula- tions on trucks serve to lower emissions on new vehicles, these improvements often filter more slowly to urban truck operations. Because of the short nature of urban truck trips, urban fleets turn over more slowly, and once over-the-road trucks are retired, they often see service in urban truck operations.

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Regulations Impacting Urban Goods Movement 51 Exhibit 5-7. Truck and bridge damage. Source: NYCDOT. To lower emissions in urban areas, an increasing number of state and local jurisdictions are imposing additional restrictions on trucks such as idling regulations and engine compliance rules. The American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI) has assembled a compendium of truck idling regulations that cites 22 states and more than 50 city and county jurisdictions that impose engine idling restrictions (see http://www.atri-online.org/research/idling/ATRI_Idling_ Compendium.pdf).