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Putting It All Together: A Process for Evaluating and Addressing the Impacts 57 Exhibit 6-2. Regulation evaluation matrix. Potential Impacts Increased Air, Reduced Trucks on Increased More Trucks Double Regulation Noise, Business Residential Congestion on the Roads Parking Pollution Competitiveness Streets Truck routing Parking and loading zones Time-of-day delivery Truck size and weight Building codes, design regulations Infrastructure design Land use and zoning Enforcement policies Source: Wilbur Smith Associates. Identify Potential Solutions and Strategies to Improve Urban Goods Movements The following potential solutions and strategies provide ideas and suggestions for addressing specific types of impacts. Suggestions may include revising codes, ordinances, or regulations; developing new programs; or changing policies. The case studies following this section and the accompanying CD include other suggestions. Exhibit 6-3 provides a matrix summarizing poten- tial problems and solutions. Truck Routing Problems or Issues Trucks on residential streets or routes where they are not permitted, and Trucks not having direct routes or access to pickup or delivery destinations. Analysis/Evaluation Has a dedicated truck route network been clearly defined? When has it last been updated? Are the signs indicating truck routes well placed and clear of obstructions? Do roadways designated as non-truck routes isolate facilities or locations? Are truck routes designed and managed to accommodate heavy truck traffic?

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Exhibit 6-3. Urban goods movement problems and potential solutions. Potential Solutions Work with Review and revise Work with Improve roadway freight design standards for businesses Modify local Use cell phones and bridge industry Work Conduct Designate Enforce new construction to to regulations and other infrastructure to stakeholder, with MPO education or add parking and better accommodate schedule designating the technology to meet current local chamber or state and outreach Designate truck truck freight needs (e.g. pick-up/ hours pick-ups/ schedule or design standards Evaluate or economic DOT on truck Improve parking routing dock space, location, delivery deliveries are direct pick-up/ that accommodate "last mile" development freight importance routes signage spaces regulations freight elevators) times permitted delivery times trucks needs staff staff of freight Problem trucks on residential streets x x x x x x x x trucks cutting through private property or parking lots to x x x x x x x access pick-up/delivery locations trucks not having direct routes x x x x x x x x for pick-up or delivery trucks circling blocks; no x x x x x parking available double parking x x x x x x passenger cars/dumpsters in x x x truck loading zones congestion x x x x x x x x trucks driving over curbs, x x x x hitting items near corners trucks having inadequate x x x x x space to back up or turn conflicts--business and x x x x industry uses noise, dust, light pollution x x x x from freight uses freight improvement projects x x x x not receiving priority

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Putting It All Together: A Process for Evaluating and Addressing the Impacts 59 Potential Solution Identify common origins and destinations that trucks need/want to access, Create a plan for communicating existing truck routes, Improve truck route signage, Provide online resources for comments on truck routes and truck route violations, Work with the MPO and adjacent jurisdictions to conduct a truck route study and develop truck route maps for the urban area, and Work with local law enforcement on "how to" and "why" truck route enforcement is important. The Atlanta case study in Chapter 7 provides an example. Parking and Loading Zones Problems or Issues Trucks circling blocks to find curbside parking for pick up or delivery, Trucks double parking, Passenger cars in truck loading zones, Waste disposal bins/dumpsters in loading zones, and Congestion. Analysis/Evaluation Is signage for the loading zones clear? Are passenger vehicles and other items such as waste containers blocking loading zones? Are there an adequate number of spaces for the types of businesses on the street? Which curbside areas are in the highest demand at various times of the day? Potential Solution Work with local businesses to schedule deliveries to avoid conflicts, Use technology or even cell phones to contact and coordinate with drivers, Extend the hours or times of day that trucks are permitted to load and unload, Strictly enforce truck loading zones; ticket passenger vehicles and other items that park in, or are placed in, these spaces, Install variable pricing parking meters, Add more curbside truck parking, Require new construction and renovation projects to include adequate dock space (see the Resource CD for examples), and Require new construction and renovation projects to include an adequate number of freight elevators (see the Resource CD for examples). The Toronto case study in Chapter 7 provides an example. Time-of-Day Delivery Restrictions Problems or Issues Congestion from trucks trying to access pick up or delivery destinations during peak hour traffic. Analysis/Evaluation Is truck congestion greater at specific hours of day? Potential Solution Work with local businesses to accept deliveries in off-peak hours, Work with local businesses to schedule deliveries to avoid conflicts,

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60 Guidebook for Understanding Urban Goods Movement Use technology or even cell phones to contact and coordinate with drivers, Change time-of-day operating regulations to alter or extend hours when trucks may pick up or deliver goods, Determine if there is a need to simultaneously revise noise ordinances, Possibly test this initially with waste collection trucks serving businesses, and Allow trucks to park (with a turned off engine/not idle) overnight for early morning delivery. The London case study in Chapter 7 provides an example. Building Codes Problems or Issues Trucks extending onto roadways while picking up or delivering, and Trucks blocking traffic or parking at the curb because of a lack of adequate docking space. Analysis/Evaluation Do building codes need to be updated to address new truck design and increases in consumer goods volumes? Potential Solution Review and update building codes for new construction or require retrofitting to provide ade- quate docking (space, design, number) and elevators dedicated to freight movement inside buildings. The New York City case study in Chapter 7 provides an example. Infrastructure Design Requirements/Operating Structure Problems or Issues Trucks driving over curbs, hitting poles and signs at intersection corners, Trucks not having adequate space to back up or turn, Trucks not having access to facilities because of bridge height and weight limits, Trucks needing to drive through privately owned roadways and parking lots to access inter- modal facilities or pick up and delivery locations (referred to as the "last mile"), and Trucks not having direct routes or access to pick up or delivery destinations. Analysis/Evaluation Do bridges and roadways meet current standards to accommodate the needed height and turning radii for modern trucks? Potential Solution Identify common origins and destinations that trucks want to access, Determine if the infrastructure adjacent to the origin and destination meets current state and federal design standards, Determine the ownership of the infrastructure, Work with local MPO and state DOT, economic development organizations, and the truck- ing industry to seek funding to improve the infrastructure to upgrade truck access and mobility, and For infrastructure serving major goods movements facilities, work with city or county engi- neering office to revise local bridge and roadway design standards to those needed to accom- modate trucks.

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Putting It All Together: A Process for Evaluating and Addressing the Impacts 61 Zoning Problems or Issues Conflicts and complaints between residents and businesses relating to Truck traffic, noise, and air pollution, Light and noise "spill-over" from urban manufacturing and distribution facilities, and Reduction in property values because of adjacent business uses. Analysis/Evaluation Have interviews with stakeholders or stakeholder workshops identified areas of potential conflict? Will zoning changes reduce the economic competitiveness of the region? Potential Solution Potentially review current zoning codes to include buffer zones between business, industrial, and commercial uses, Require light screening, including limiting height of lights, directional covers on light fixtures, walls, and times of day lights can be on to avoid lighting spilling into residential areas, Require noise screening with vegetation, fences, walls, or restricting hours of operation to avoid noise spillover, Consider developing overlay zones to protect industry, and See also, Green Initiatives below. The Baltimore case study in Chapter 7 provides an example. Zoning/Green Initiatives Problems or Issues Conflicts and complaints between residents and businesses relating to urban goods movements. Analysis/Evaluation Have industrial-commercial, business/manufacturing facilities and distribution centers that are major freight generators in the local area been identified? Have vacant Brownfield sites in the area been identified? Have clusters of major freight generating activities been identified? Potential Solution Both potential solutions below involve working with local business and economic develop- ment groups. Both solutions may need to be accompanied by tax incentives and infrastructure improvements needed to support increased freight movements. Urban consolidation center/freight village: create a zone in which a cluster of industrial, inter- modal, distribution, and logistics buildings can be located within a secure perimeter. This zone would permit all activities relating to transport, logistics, and the distribution of goods car- ried out by various operators. It should be able to include uses that provide a range of support services to tenant firms and their operations. Additional details on consolidation centers and freight villages are provided on the Resource CD. Brownfield redevelopment: identify and zone a Brownfield site to be used as an urban consol- idation center/freight village. Provide assistance to deal with environmental permitting, incen- tives to the site, and infrastructure to accommodate freight movements. The Buffalo, New York, case study in Chapter 7 provides an example.