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74 Guidebook for Understanding Urban Goods Movement By moving to use of foot couriers in the underground walkway, Purolator both avoids having to deal with surface street congestion and helps to mitigate overall traffic congestion in the down- town. Purolator officials estimate that the firm's use of the PATH system has allowed it to remove 36 delivery vehicles (on average) from surface streets each day. Purolator anticipates that its courier operations in the PATH system would expand along with expansion of the system itself. At this time, at least one other courier, UPS, is also using the PATH system, but with only one package distribution room and in a much more limited manner than Purolator. Lessons and Conclusion As Toronto continues to grow and attract mixed-use, high-density development to the city's downtown, it has recognized the importance of making appropriate provisions for efficient and safe movement of goods and deliveries that support the city's economy. Although problems with traffic congestion, competition for curbside delivery spaces, and illegal parking remain, the City of Toronto has begun to take significant, measured steps toward workable solutions to these problems. In addition, the city is contemplating at least two longer-term strategies for making delivery activities in the downtown area more efficient: (1) an annual permitting fee that would allow exemptions to certain no-parking restrictions for those willing to purchase such permits; and/or (2) an in-vehicle metering system that would allow entry to, and delivery stops within, certain downtown zones for limited periods each day. Through this coordinated set of strategies, Toronto is helping optimize mobility for downtown activities and facilitating a sustainable, vital city for the long term. Principal Findings References and Sources Overweight trucks "City of Toronto Official Plan," available online at "City of Toronto PATH--Toronto's Downtown Walkway," available online at can be significant "City of Toronto Zoning Bylaw Project--About the Project," available online at contributors to about.htm Haider, M. et al., Challenges Facing Express Delivery Services in Canada's Urban Centres, Ryerson University: Insti- pavement and tute of Housing and Mobility, 2009. bridge repair costs. Interviews with officials of City of Toronto Planning and Traffic Departments, November/December 2010. Interviews with officials of Purolator Courier (Canada), December 2010. In the District of MMM Group, Ltd., City of Toronto Loading Standards Review, prepared for the City of Toronto, May 2009. Metrolinx, Greater Toronto-Hamilton Area (GTHA) Urban Freight Study Stakeholder Workshop--Workshop Sum- Columbia, these mary Report, March 2010. costs were esti- mated to be as Washington, D.C.: Commercial Vehicle Regulation much as $16 mil- Background lion per year. The The U.S. Constitution established the District of Columbia (D.C. or "the District") in 1789 implementation of when this land area was set aside for the nation's capitol. D.C.'s population peaked in 1950 innovative enforce- with just over 800,000 residents. As of 2010, estimates place the D.C. population at 601,723. In 2007, the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, D.C.-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical ment technologies Area (MSA) ranked second nationally in congestion, with an average of 62 hours of traffic (e.g., weigh-in- delays per traveler per year. Trucks make up approximately 5 percent of total average daily motion scales) can traffic in the District, but on some routes, trucks constitute 12 percent to 15 percent of total traffic. have significant In 2004, the Planning and Policy Analysis Division of the John A. Volpe National Transporta- impacts in reducing tion Systems Center completed a study for D.C. officials entitled District of Columbia Motor Car- these costs. rier Management and Threat Assessment Study (Volpe National Transportation Research Center

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Case Studies 75 2003). The District sponsored the study to address concerns about truck traffic, commercial vehicle parking, and security concerns in the wake of 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States. In response to the study's recommendations, the District DOT (DDOT) created a Motor Carrier Planning Division. The Story Following one of the recommendations in the Threat Assessment Study, DDOT formed the Motor Carrier Division to address mobility, safety, security, and environmental concerns related to freight and bus transportation. In 2008, Eulois Cleckley joined the DDOT staff as manager of the newly formed Motor Carrier Division. Since most commerce in the District originates from freight generators in surrounding Maryland and Virginia, mobility and efficiency were para- mount concerns that could be addressed by developing a truck route network. There are no offi- cially designated truck routes in D.C., but a number of de facto truck routes had been identified that drivers preferred because of roadway geometry, traffic conditions, and location relative to trip origins and destinations. The formal designation of truck routes in the District would address many longstanding concerns such as noise and vibration complaints from residents, security con- cerns around high-risk facilities, congestion, and the need for better information and services for truck operators and their customers. The District of Columbia Motor Carrier Management and Threat Assessment Study recommended several truck routes and restricted truck zones. Cleckley understood that to move forward with designating a District truck route network, he had to improve communications with the trucking industry and D.C. neighborhoods. At the same time, there was a need to develop better baseline information about the level of illegal trucking operations, such as overweight vehicles. DDOT began the truck route effort by con- ducting a best practice review of other major urban areas that had implemented truck routes. Ultimately, the design and planning of the District's truck and bus route system employed a pri- marily original approach that included engineering and planning considerations, neighborhood contextual analysis, commercial considerations, public feedback, and practicality. The District designed the process to be as holistic as possible, with significant attention paid to balancing vari- ous engineering and planning elements with stakeholder interests. The first step to balance various interests was to receive feedback about the proposed truck routes from the ward, city, and regional planners in the District. Meetings were held with each planner to explain the background, purpose, and goals of the project. Next, meetings were held with private truck and bus firms to explore opportunities for improving operational efficiency for industry and improving the clarity of truck and bus regulations for industry groups. Initially proposed bus and truck routes also were distributed to all advisory neighborhood commissions (ANCs) for their review. Meetings were arranged with responding ANC commissioners to dis- cuss the proposed routes, answer questions, and receive advice on specific neighborhood ele- ments to consider. Despite the extensive outreach program, DDOT still faced many challenges to implementing the truck and bus route system. Beyond the obvious challenge of getting both public and private sectors to agree with a particular route, there was also the issue of whether selected routes were in a condition to handle the wear and tear of being designated a commercial route. Following the design process, the Motor Carrier Division developed maps detailing the truck and bus route system. Several internal use maps detailed all truck and bus restrictions and categorized routes by type (i.e., National Network versus Charter Bus Only). An additional map was developed for public distribution showing primary routes, charter bus only routes, restricted areas, and load- ing zones. In addition to the maps, the project developed official rules to be incorporated into the D.C. government Code of Municipal Regulations.