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Case Studies 89 precinct. Fully implemented in 2008, the NYPD memo insert program heightened officer under- standing of the truck route system. NYPD also added truck route summonsing to their Traffic- Stat data monitoring program, and these efforts together have contributed to an increase in truck route enforcement. The first generation of new experimental truck route signs incorporated a green circle, the universally accepted symbol for positive guidance, into the existing conventional sign. A pro- hibitive route sign incorporated the red circle and diagonal. The pilot signage program was implemented in the Hunt's Point area of the Bronx, and NYCDOT continues to evaluate the results of this program. Feedback from the off-hours delivery program suggested that fewer deliveries during normal business hours allowed shops and restaurants to focus more on their customers. In addition, receivers said their staffs were more productive because they waited around less for deliveries that were tied up in traffic. Carriers found that their trucks could make more deliveries in the same amount of time because their service time at a receiver's location was reduced from 1.8 hours to 0.5 hours. They also saved money on fuel costs and could use a smaller fleet by balancing daytime and nighttime deliveries. Legal parking was more readily available during these hours, and drivers reported feeling safer and less stressed. The study also found that travel speeds from a truck depot in New Jersey to a delivery driver's first stop in Manhattan improved by 75 percent. Reviewing the accomplishments of the Office of Freight Mobility in its first 3 years, Hodge was most proud of the advances made in opening lines of communication between the various units within NYCDOT responsible for regulating commercial vehicles. Before the Office of Freight Mobility, there was no single point of contact in city government for commercial vehicle oper- ators. Today, the office is the face of freight for NYCDOT. Extensive stakeholder and community outreach aided the progress of the Office of Freight Mobility, but each outreach effort had been specific to each program, requiring extensive time and resource commitments. Moving forward, Hodge and her team will explore opportunities to institutionalize stakeholder outreach through some form of public-private freight committee that would foster trust and get the private sector solidly behind NYCDOT efforts to increase efficiency. References and Sources Truck Route Management and Community Impact Reduction Study, "Executive Summary," New York City Department of Transportation, Edwards and Kelcey, Inc. March 2007, p. 1. The NYCDOT Citywide Truck Enforcement Fact Sheet, available online at http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/motorist/ trucks.shtml Commissioner's Corner Monthly Letter, "When Trucks Strike Back," August 2008, available online at http:// www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/about/corner_august.shtml Commissioner's Corner Monthly Letter, "Off-Hour Delivery," July 2010, available online at http://www.nyc. gov/html/dot/html/about/corner_july2010.shtml Buffalo: Brownfield Redevelopment for a Logistics Hub Background In 1900, Buffalo, New York, was the eighth largest city in the United States, and the nation's second largest railroad hub. During World War II, Buffalo's Bethlehem-Lackawanna Steel Plant was the largest steelmaking operation in the world, employing 20,000 workers on a 1,300-acre site. In the late 1970s, however, global competition brought great quantities of imported steel to

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90 Guidebook for Understanding Urban Goods Movement Principal Findings the United States and Bethlehem Steel began reducing its workforce at the Lackawanna plant. In the early 1980s, Bethlehem Steel closed most of its steel making operations in Buffalo. By 2010, In urban areas with 267,703 residents, Buffalo had slipped to 70th place in population among U.S. cities. focused on redevel- In 2006, to address the impacts of the changing economy and declining population of West- opment of under- ern New York State, the two counties comprising the Buffalo metropolitan region--Erie and used or brownfield Niagara--embarked on developing a framework for regional growth, as follows: lands, considera- In addition to the effects of national and international-level influences--global competition and free tion of access and trade, unfunded mandates from state and federal governments, and the rise of the sunbelt--decisions about the pace, pattern, and form of development have affected the region's ability to attract investment logistics needs and retain talent. should be a high Although the framework acknowledged the limitations counties have in affecting the planning priority for plan- authority of municipal governments in New York State, it was developed as a resource for ning and economic regional leaders to leverage limited resources and provide consistent direction and useful sup- port to municipalities in both counties. development offi- cials. Protecting One of the issues raised in the Erie-Niagara Framework for Regional Growth study concerned the inventory of investment-ready commercial and industrial land-use sites. As of 2006, when and strengthening the framework was published, "the counties have identified only 2,220 acres of land available for multimodal trans- industrial and commercial development, and only 9 of the 38 individual sites identified are more portation links, than 100 acres." To address this deficiency, the report recommended the following strategies for supporting economic development and freight transportation: access, and facili- Expand on previous "shovel-ready site" assessments and develop a regional inventory and ties that support marketing strategy for vacant, underutilized, and brownfield properties, and support the industrial and/or preparation of conceptual development plans and marketing strategies for sites best posi- commercial uses in tioned to support regional economic development objectives. Encourage localities to preserve and properly zone larger-scale vacant and underutilized sites a redevelopment with potential to accommodate research and development, technology, manufacturing, and zone can be an distribution enterprises. Support efforts to: (1) plan and zone for employment-intensive commercial and industrial important part of development on sites with ready access to the region's highway and rail networks; (2) recog- attracting invest- nize areas well served by public transportation as catalysts for higher density development and ment and tenants reinvestment in regional centers and growth corridors; and (3) improve access to, between, and within regional centers and growth corridors. to that zone. It is also important to The Story consider the need In 2008, building on the regional growth initiative, the executive leadership of Erie County for adequate buffer adopted its own strategy for economic development within the framework established for the zones between region. Erie County's Road to a Bright Future established a strategy to capitalize on the county's position as an international gateway rather than focus on job and population loss. such redevelop- ment and incom- To succeed as a community, the definition of economic development can no longer be to just give away tax incentives or low-cost loans. Instead, we must develop our area's economy through articulation and patible land uses the support of a community vision that guides public investment, drives private investment, and provides such as residential decisive execution with a foundation of good planning. neighborhoods. By virtue of its location and existing freight transportation assets, Erie County and the sur- rounding region is well positioned to expand its role in international and domestic logistics. The availability of industrial land such as the former Bethlehem Steel plant site and other real estate

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Case Studies 91 assets with access to rail, highway, and water transportation provides significant logistics devel- opment opportunities. Kenneth Swanekamp, director of business assistance for Erie County, and Christopher Pawen- ski, Coordinator for the Industrial Assistance Program, are invested in the success of their com- munity. Swanekamp has 30 years of experience in business development, and Pawenski returned to Erie County after a successful career as a project manager for a private construction firm. In Pawenski's words, "Having grown up in the Buffalo area, and watching the economic decline, I wanted to return and give back to the community. I wanted to do my part in helping turn around our economic situation." Swanekamp and Pawenski work as a team, with Swanekamp taking responsibilities for working with other agencies in the region and Pawenski meeting and interact- ing with the business community. Both men have a keen sense of the transportation and supply chain needs of businesses already located in the region, as well as those businesses looking to move into the area. In addition, with the rapid growth of the transportation and warehousing industrial sector, they view developments such as the Bethlehem Steel Lackawanna site, with its ready high- way, rail, port, and airport access, as an excellent employment opportunity for the region. Today, most of the former Bethlehem Steel Lackawanna site is owned by Tecumseh Redevel- opment, a subsidiary of the international steel company giant ArcelorMittal. The primary devel- opment site comprises 11,000 acres (see Exhibit 7-8). The site offers effective rail and highway access as well as access to the Port of Buffalo. Another benefit of this location is that portions of the site fall within an "Empire Zone," a New York State Exhibit 7-8. Bethlehem Steel Lackawanna industrial site development map. Source: Erie County Office of Economic Development.

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92 Guidebook for Understanding Urban Goods Movement designation for a geographic area of a county or municipality that has been deemed eligible for special state tax incentives and other state and local support meant to encourage new and expanded economic development and investment. As of early 2010, Tecumseh Redevelopment was preparing a concept redevelopment plan for potential transportation- and industrial-related businesses. It is also working with state and fed- eral agencies to explore the possibility of rerouting portions of Smokes Creek, which currently bisects the southern portion of the site. Such a project would require between $15 million and $20 million in infrastructure improvements. The site also is served by the short-line South Buf- falo Railroad. Even with its limited network, the railroad would provide a connection to the facil- ity for each of the major railroads of the region. It served a similar role in the past when the steel mill was operational. The site has significant potential to help the region establish itself as a logistics hub. The site has plenty of room and good rail, water, and roadway connections. Logistics areas require large amounts of land, and this is one of the few brownfield sites in the area that has sufficient land. A number of trading opportunities have been identified that could help the Buffalo-Niagara region to establish itself as a logistics center. The region could serve as an inland hub for the Port of New York/New Jersey. Rail intermodal service between Buffalo and the Port of New York/New Jer- sey has dramatically improved in recent years. The site also could serve as a distribution hub to serve Canada. A recent study by the World Trade Center of Buffalo found that numerous Cana- dian shippers use U.S. ports and then deliver products by truck through Buffalo into southern Ontario. With improved intermodal rail service, Buffalo could serve as an intermodal hub for the southern Lake Ontario region of Canada, which is known as the "Golden Horseshoe." County officials also are urging that development be founded on an effective planning and zoning process that would create a buffer between the heavy industrial activities on the west side of the site and the residential development adjacent to the site on the east side of Route 5. The county plan calls for light industrial (commercial) tenants to be located on the portion of the site along Route 5, while heavy industrial tenants will be located farther into the location. Lessons and Conclusion As with other properties the Erie County Office of Economic Development prepares for mar- ket, the Bethlehem Steel site needs to be made usable before attracting potential tenants. Rail lines on the site must be upgraded; currently, the lines are built to 1900 standards. Recently, the New York State Department of Transportation Multimodal Program awarded Erie County a $2 million grant to realign and modernize rail track on the property. Current plans also call for the site to be served by two to three roadway access points. Erie County has already entered into discussions with nearby residents living across Route 5 to find acceptable solutions to traffic issues. The county has stated to nearby residents that traffic will be entering and exiting only at the north and south ends of the site, away from residential areas. Using a generic environmental review process, the county is developing traffic parameters with which potential tenants would need to comply in order to avoid requirements for additional traf- fic studies. References and Sources "Buffalo Slips to 70th in City Population," Buffalo Business First, available online at http://www.bizjournals.com/ buffalo/news/2010/11/21/buffalo-slips-to-70th-in-city-population.html Erie-Niagara Framework for Regional Growth: Final Report, 2006, available online at http://www.erie.gov/regional framework/docs/Framework%20for%20Regional%20Growth%20-%20Final%20Plan.pdf Ibid, 2006, Chapter 2, p 23.