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Case Studies 93 Erie County's Road to a Bright Future, Hon. Chris Collins, Erie County Executive, available online at http:// Erie County, Industrial Parks Report, July 2010. Case Studies--Key Findings Key findings from the nine case studies follow. 1. Long-term planning for freight in urban development is essential. Creating protected industrial zones in urban centers where there are restrictions placed by the planning authority on residential, retail, and leisure developments can safeguard commercial centers and attract new business. This policy is particularly applicable to port sites where water- front land, which is vital for vessel management, could be lost to residential development, alter- ing the land use of the area forever. Wherever possible, areas of brownfield land with good multi- modal transportation links should be safeguarded for industrial/commercial use. 2. Harmonizing truck access and loading regulations along with enforcement strategies within and across regions can bring about significant efficiency savings to both the local community and logistics providers. Unifying loading/unloading/waiting restrictions within city areas and across different cities can make urban delivery more efficient, harmonize enforcement strategies, and improve under- standing among logistics providers, their clients, and local authorities. Freight and service vehicles can be catered for in simple ways such as minimum waiting peri- ods for freight vehicles displaying a windshield "service provider" ID card, standardizing load- ing spaces, and allowing hand delivery of parcels using metro and underground services. Simple guidance signage should be considered for aiding truck drivers through urban areas (e.g., green and red route signage to denote acceptable and unacceptable routes respectively). Overweight trucks can be responsible for annual pavement and bridge repair costs of around $16 million in some cities. The implementation of innovative enforcement technologies (e.g., weigh-in-motion scales) can have a significant impact on reducing these costs. When developing a strategic truck route master plan it is important to change the mindset from one of prohibiting commercial vehicles from certain neighborhoods to effectively and effi- ciently accommodating trucks in the urban environment. This is done through dialogue with stakeholders and identifying all possible routes exhibiting truck-friendly characteristics that may be enhanced by investment, over time, to satisfy both the needs of the freight community and the communities in which they operate. For effective enforcement, it is essential that all traffic and law enforcement officers have details of truck route and waiting rules for their district. 3. Freight Consolidation Centers (FCCs) are a proven system for reducing freight vehicle impacts in urban centers and should be seriously considered as part of city planning. Key benefits to be gained from implementing FCCs are Reducing truck traffic levels (reducing truck movements in the urban area through improved consolidation or modal shift); Altering the type of truck used (e.g., fewer light or very heavy trucks); Reducing the environmental impacts associated with truck activity (i.e., through a reduc- tion in total trips and/or greater use of environmentally friendly vehicles); Improving the efficiency of urban freight transportation operations (through improved load factors or fewer deliveries); Reducing the need for goods storage and logistics activities near the urban core (offering storage facilities at the FCC, as well as other value-added services); and

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94 Guidebook for Understanding Urban Goods Movement Understanding, in detail, the current methods of supply by businesses in the district and the mechanisms by which the FCC could operate (100 percent privately funded, a mixture of private/public partnership, compulsory buy-in for access to specific areas, voluntary buy-in) is of key importance to the establishment of an FCC. 4. Altering access regulations to allow out-of-hours supply can help reduce the impacts of freight vehicles on urban centers. Out-of-hours deliveries (OHDs) are best suited to large businesses operating centralized dis- tribution systems fed from a regional distribution center because such businesses can better jus- tify the additional costs in staffing the facility out of hours and can handle vehicles off the public highway. OHDs have been shown to (1) improve driver and fleet productivity, (2) reduce the environmental footprint of the logistics operation by operating vehicles more efficiently during less congested periods, and (3) reduce the wider impacts (crashes, noise, parking, etc.) of logistics operations on the local area. Existing legislation (related to noise levels and access hours) is often the major hurdle to wide- spread adoption.