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NCFRP NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 14 Sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Guidebook for Understanding Administration Urban Goods Movement

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Consultant, Silver Spring, MD VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Joan McDonald, Commissioner, New York State DOT, Albany Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Michael P. Melaniphy, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA Gregory D. Winfree, Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of November 2011.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM NCFRP REPORT 14 Guidebook for Understanding Urban Goods Movement Suzann S. Rhodes WILBUR SMITH ASSOCIATES/CDM Columbus, OH Mark Berndt WILBUR SMITH ASSOCIATES/CDM Minneapolis, MN Paul Bingham WILBUR SMITH ASSOCIATES/CDM Arlington, VA Joe Bryan HALCROW, INC. Boston, MA Thomas J. Cherrett UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON Highfield, Southampton, England Peter Plumeau RESOURCE SYSTEMS GROUP, INC. Burlington, VT Roberta Weisbrod PARTNERSHIP FOR SUSTAINABLE PORTS New York, NY Subscriber Categories Freight Transportation Planning and Forecasting Research sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT NCFRP REPORT 14 RESEARCH PROGRAM America's freight transportation system makes critical contributions Project NCFRP-15A to the nation's economy, security, and quality of life. The freight ISSN 1947-5659 transportation system in the United States is a complex, decentralized, ISBN 978-0-309-21387-5 and dynamic network of private and public entities, involving all Library of Congress Control Number 2012931341 modes of transportation--trucking, rail, waterways, air, and pipelines. 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. In recent years, the demand for freight transportation service has been increasing fueled by growth in international trade; however, bottlenecks or congestion points in the system are exposing the COPYRIGHT INFORMATION inadequacies of current infrastructure and operations to meet the Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining growing demand for freight. Strategic operational and investment written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously decisions by governments at all levels will be necessary to maintain published or copyrighted material used herein. freight system performance, and will in turn require sound technical Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this guidance based on research. publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, The National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) is FMCSA, FTA, RITA, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. a cooperative research program sponsored by the Research and It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not- Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) under Grant No. for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DTOS59-06-G-00039 and administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB). The program was authorized in 2005 with the passage of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). On September 6, 2006, a contract to NOTICE begin work was executed between RITA and The National Academies. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Freight The NCFRP will carry out applied research on problems facing the Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. freight industry that are not being adequately addressed by existing The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this research programs. report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Program guidance is provided by an Oversight Committee comprised The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to of a representative cross section of freight stakeholders appointed by procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. the National Research Council of The National Academies. The NCFRP Oversight Committee meets annually to formulate the research The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. funding levels and expected products. Research problem statements The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research recommending research needs for consideration by the Oversight Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program do not Committee are solicited annually, but may be submitted to TRB at any endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely time. Each selected project is assigned to a panel, appointed by TRB, because they are considered essential to the object of the report. which provides technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. Heavy emphasis is placed on including members representing the intended users of the research products. The NCFRP will produce a series of research reports and other products such as guidebooks for practitioners. Primary emphasis will be placed on disseminating NCFRP results to the intended end-users of the research: freight shippers and carriers, service providers, suppliers, and public officials. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCFRP REPORT 14 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor NCFRP PROJECT 15A PANEL Freight Research Projects Diane Davidson, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN (Chair) Miguel Andres Figlozzi, Portland State University, Portland, OR Barbara A. Ivanov, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA Janet F. Kavinoky, US Chamber of Commerce, Washington, DC Peter A. Rutski, The Tioga Group, Ponte Vedra Beach, FL Edward L. Strocko, FHWA Liaison Ann Purdue, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board NCFRP Report 14: Guidebook for Understanding Urban Goods Movement presents infor- mation and suggestions for improving public decisions affecting urban commercial motor vehicle movements for goods delivery. While many aspects of urban goods move- ment have been thoroughly documented, no single report provides a comprehensive, concise guide for public decisionmakers to accommodate and expedite urban goods movement while minimizing the environmental impact and community consequences of goods movement. The guidebook and cases studies will help decisionmakers understand the potential impacts of their decisions on urban goods movements among the following categories: transportation infrastructure and operations; land use and site design; and laws, regulations, and ordinances applicable to urban areas. The guidebook, with an accompanying overview for local officials and CD-ROM (CRP- CD-105) containing the contractor's final report and appendices (unedited by TRB), includes case studies of urban supply chains and how they connect to the urban economy, infrastruc- ture, and land use patterns; the impacts of land use codes and regulations governing metro- politan goods movement on private-sector freight providers; and planning strategies for improving mobility and access for goods movements in urban areas. The CD-ROM also includes two PowerPoint presentations with speaker notes that transportation planners can use to educate local decisionmakers on how they can improve mobility and access for goods movement in their area. The efficient flow of goods is essential for the economic well-being of the vast majority of Americans who live in urbanized areas. The performance of the freight flow system also has direct implications for the productivity of the nation, the costs of goods and services, and the global competitiveness of industries. Land use and zoning decisions at the local level, by determining the location of the origin or destination of goods, as well as restric- tions on time and routes followed, often occur without a full understanding or considera- tion of urban goods movement by commercial motor vehicles. As a consequence, the logistical needs of businesses and consumers may be degraded, opportunities for economic development may be missed, and freight movements may unnecessarily detract from the quality of life through congestion or emissions. Under NCFRP Project 15A, Wilbur Smith Associates was asked to (1) review the liter- ature on urban goods movement by trucks, with particular emphasis given to describing the impacts on such movement of local zoning regulations regarding off-street parking and loading, street standards and roadway design, and ordinances relating to parking per- mitting and enforcement; (2) describe the fundamentals of urban goods movement from the private perspective; (3) describe public-sector entities that are involved in land use,

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economic development, and transportation, and their current practices and decision- making criteria; (4) develop detailed descriptions of several urban supply chains that have significant impacts on the economy and make up a large share of total truck trips; and (5) develop a guidebook that supplies the foundation for understanding and focusing on the local actions, codes, ordinances, regulations, policies, and management that influence freight performance thereby accommodating and expediting the growing demand for urban goods movement, while mitigating its environmental impact and community consequences. Note: The online PDF of this report presents the contractors' art as originally submitted in color.

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Introduction and Purpose 3 Why Read the Guidebook 4 The Guidebook's Intended Audience 4 How the Guidebook Is Organized 6 Chapter 2 Background: The Importance of Goods Movement in the Urban Environment 6 A Brief History of Urban Development and Freight in America 7 Urban Goods Movement in the Twenty-First Century 8 How Goods Move 8 Who Is Moving Your Goods? 10 What Moves: Supplying Urban Populations 10 Why Freight Moves: Supporting the New Economy 14 Congestion and Cost 14 Where Freight Moves in the City--"The Last Mile" 16 Chapter 3 Moving Urban Goods: It's All about Supply Chains 17 Case Illustration 1: Soft Drink Beverages 18 Case Illustration 2: Gasoline and Petroleum Fuels Supply Chain 20 Case Illustration 3: Apparel Retail Supply Chain 21 Case Illustration 4: Aggregate-Based Construction Materials Supply Chain 22 Supply Chain Comparisons 29 Chapter 4 Using Freight Data for Planning 30 Neighborhood Freight Data 33 Freight Node Data 34 Freight Network Data 36 Freight Flow Data 38 Freight Data Protocols 41 Chapter 5 Regulations Impacting Urban Goods Movement 41 Overview 42 Design Standards 44 Urban Infrastructure Design 45 Land Use and Zoning 47 Urban Truck Regulations 52 Chapter 6 Putting It All Together: A Process for Evaluating and Addressing the Impacts 52 Recognize the Political Environment 52 Receiving Support or Authorization to Integrate Freight Analysis into the Planning Process 53 Get Organized 54 Develop Baseline Information: Field Surveys/Inventories

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54 Identify Stakeholders and Conduct Interviews 54 Summarize the Issues, Problems, and Their Locations 56 Education, Outreach, and Gaining Support 56 Review and Evaluate Current Regulations 57 Identify Potential Solutions and Strategies to Improve Urban Goods Movements 62 Measuring Success 64 Chapter 7 Case Studies 64 Atlanta: Effectively Managing Truck Traffic in the Urban Environment 67 Baltimore: The Maritime Industrial Zone Overlay District (MIZOD) 69 Toronto: Harmonizing of Loading Area Regulation across a Mega-City 74 Washington, D.C.: Commercial Vehicle Regulation 76 Nashville: Vanderbilt Medical Center--Freight Consolidation 79 London: Reducing Freight Impacts via Out-of-Hours Deliveries 83 Bristol (United Kingdom): Reducing Freight Impacts through Consolidation Centers 86 New York City: Commercial Vehicle Regulation and Off-Peak Delivery 89 Buffalo: Brownfield Redevelopment for a Logistics Hub 93 Case Studies--Key Findings 95 Appendix A Additional Supply Chain Case Illustrations 106 Appendix B References and Resources Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.