Click for next page ( 14


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 13
In the event the aircraft nose gear becomes dis- 11.2Standards connected from the TBLT during the tow and cannot be reconnected, or if the tow equipment Airports and operators that extensively use TBLTs has a mechanical problem and cannot continue may eventually be faced with new standards that the tow operation; the aircraft will need to be: will enhance operational safety. Some of these stan- Towed by another TBLT, or dards may address: Taxied clear of the movement area, and Widening and/or strengthening of airport Positioned in a location that will not ob- service roads to accommodate repositioning struct airport traffic flow. TBLTs, If oversteering occurs, perform an inspection Additional guidance on TBLT painting and of the aircraft in accordance with the aircraft lighting, maintenance manual and report any damage. Additional guidance on lighting of aircraft When the tow is complete, make chocks imme- under tow, diately available to prevent the aircraft from TBLT operating performance limitations (cre- rolling. ation of manufacturer's operations manual), In weather conditions that involve snow, ice Radio equipment requirements, and frost, use sand bags and chocks as neces- TBLT seat belt equipment requirements, sary and appropriate. Minimum TBLT operator training, TBLT operator simulator training, and Reporting of TBLT incidents and accidents. 11Future Towbarless Tractor Operations 12 Reference Material The use of TBLTs varies from airport to airport around the world, and the operational benefits indi- The following material was collected in the course of this project and is useful in understanding issues cate wider use of TBLTs in the future. Both techno- and challenges associated with ensuring safe TBLT logical improvements and new standards of use are operations at airports: to be expected in the coming years as TBLT equip- ment evolves. International Air Transport Association, Air- port Handling Manual, 29th edition, January 1, 2009. 11.1Technology Federal Aviation Administration Airport A semi-robotic tractor is currently being tested Safety and Operations Division, CertAlert to tow aircraft from the airport gate to the takeoff 08-06, SuperTBLT Operations on Part 139 point or to the gate after landing. This type of tow- Airports (all surfaces), July 1, 2008. barless system uses a "turret" to which the aircraft SAE Aerospace, Aerospace Recommended nose wheel is clamped and rotates as the pilot of the Practice: Towbarless Towing Vehicle Oper- aircraft steers the nose wheel, allowing the pilot to ating Procedure, May 2003. steer the aircraft via the towbarless system and using Towbarless Tow Vehicle Industry Work Group, the aircraft's brakes. The towbarless system leaves Meeting Report, September 910, 2009. the aircraft pilot in control of the taxiing and would U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14 not require any personnel inside the TBLT. Part 91, General Operating and Flight Rules, Under this concept, the towbarless system would August, 18, 1989. be managed through a command and control com- U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14 munication center located in the ATC tower. The Part 91.209, Aircraft Lights, February 9, 1996. eventual goal of the program is to fully automate the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14 taxiing process. The semi-robotic towbarless system Part 91K, Fractional Ownership Operations, has the potential to improve the air and noise qual- September 17, 2003. ity, reduce fuel and engine costs as aircraft would U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14 not be under its own power. As such, this type of Part 121, Operating Requirements: Domestic, towbarless system has the potential to provide envi- Flag, and Supplemental Operations, Novem- ronmental and financial benefits. ber 8, 2007. 13

OCR for page 13
U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14 U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14 Part 125, Certification and Operations: Air- Part 139.303, Personnel, June 4, 2004. planes Having a Seating Capacity of 20 or U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14 Part More Passengers or a Maximum Payload 139.329, Pedestrians and Ground Vehicles, Capacity of 6,000 Pounds or More; And Rules January 1, 2005. Governing Persons On Board Such Aircraft, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal November 8, 2007. Aviation Administration Advisory Circular U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14 00-65 Change 1, Towbar and Towbarless Part 129, Operations: Foreign Air Carriers Movement of Aircraft, November 8, 2010. and Foreign Operators of U.S.-Registered U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aircraft Engaged in Common Carriage, Feb- Aviation Administration Advisory Circular ruary 10, 2011. 150/5210-5, Painting, Lighting and Marking U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14 of Vehicles Used on an Airport, April 1, 2010. Part 135, Operating Requirements: Commuter U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal and On Demand Operations and Rules Gov- Aviation Administration Advisory Circular erning Persons On Board Such Aircraft, 150/5210-20, Ground Vehicle Operations on October 10, 1978. Airports, March 31, 2008. 14

OCR for page 13
Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 ISBN 978-0-309-21393-6 90000 Subscriber Category: Aviation 9 780309 213936 These digests are issued in order to increase awareness of research results emanating from projects in the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP). Persons wanting to pursue the project subject matter in greater depth should contact the CRP Staff, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001. COPYRIGHT Information Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP.