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aircraft, vehicle, or person on the protected area 3TBLT Operator Requirements of a surface designated for the landing and take- This section describes the specific minimum off of aircraft. requirements for TBLT operators. These require- Ramp Control--A ground communications facil- ments include FAA guidance, airport operational ity that provides ATC services to aircraft operat- requirements, airline operating manuals, and manu- ing on the ramp area. facturers' recommended procedures. Read Back--Upon receiving ATC instructions, a pilot repeats all, or specified parts, of the trans- mission. 3.1Credentials Route--A defined path consisting of one or more courses that an aircraft can traverse on the airport. In addition to demonstrating proper training and Runway Visibility Range (RVR)--The maximum knowledge, TBLT operator licensing and badging distance along the runway at which the runway must be obtained prior to operating a TBLT. Ad- lights are visible to a pilot after touchdown. ditionally, personnel must be able to show licens- Situational Awareness--The ability to identify, ing documentation upon request. Airport opera- process, and comprehend the critical elements tors typically require that TBLT operators obtain of information about what is happening at a the following credentials prior to operating on the given point in time (i.e., knowing what is going airport: on around you). Background checks and screening, Super Tug--See Towbarless Tractor. Valid state-issued driver's license (FAA AC Tail Walker--Ground personnel assigned to ac- 150/5210-20), company the aircraft to ensure sufficient clear- Valid airport security badge/identification, and ance of aircraft tail to objects are maintained Airport driving privileges (FAA AC 150/ during pushback and/or towing in limited spaces. 5210-20). Taxi--The movement of an airplane on the surface of an airport (ATC clearance required to taxi in 3.2Training movement areas). Towbarless Tow Vehicle (TLTV)--See Towbar- Recommended minimum training requirements less Tractor. are listed below by training area. All areas should be Towbarless Tractor (TBLT)--An aircraft tow covered during training and airport operators should tractor that utilizes a pick-up device located in provide a means of testing of the material. the center of the vehicle used to cradle the nose Trainees should have on-the-job (OTJ) training gear tire of an aircraft. The TBLT works without prior to unescorted access and demonstrate sound a towbar, thus enabling a quick, safe and eco- situational awareness (FAA AC 150/5210-20 and nomical handling of aircraft on the ground. The FAA AC 00-65). The TBLT owner should maintain absence of towbars and the higher speeds mean training records (Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) that aircraft movements, pushbacks, gate-to-gate 139.329.f ). towing, and maintenance towing can be carried General: out faster than with conventional towbar tractors, Minimum age requirement, minimizing impact to airport operations. Physical qualifications, Visibility--The ability, as determined by atmospheric Security background check, and conditions and expressed in units of distance, to Appropriate level of knowledge of airport see and identify prominent unlighted objects by rules and regulations. day and prominent lighted objects by night. Vis- Airport driver training (FAR 139.329.e): ibility is reported as statute miles, hundreds of An emphasis should be placed on initial and feet, or meters. annual recurrent driver training for TBLT Wing Walker--Ground personnel assigned to ac- operators, specific to each TBLT model company the aircraft to ensure sufficient clear- operated. ance of aircraft wingtips to objects is maintained Many runway incursion factors include a during pushback and/or towing in limited spaces. lack of driver training. See FAA AC 150/ 4