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20 Chapter 3 Overview of Conflicting Land Uses and Freight-Transportation-Related Services When competing and incompatible land uses exist in are more specific to particular modes. For example, the poten- close proximity to each other, these uses often interfere with tial for dangerous trespass tends to be specific to railroads. each other, resulting in potential conflicts between them. For Figure 3-1 shows the main conflicts that arise with respect to example, a freight yard or corridor located near a residential freight activity. neighborhood, school, or hospital is often a source of conflict. Another issue that cannot be ignored in this context is that Conflicts could be physical in nature and/or involve nuisance, local jurisdictions have an incentive to maximize property and health, or safety concerns. For the individual, these conflicts sales tax revenues. In many cases, this has created pressure to often create nuisance and pollution issues that can imperil change zoning designations from industrial to non-industrial the peaceful enjoyment of one's property, or are the source classifications if it is believed that non-industrial uses will of safety issues. From the perspective of planning agencies, generate greater tax revenues. Demand for affordable land planning to reduce these types of conflicts is extremely dif- that is situated near city and downtown amenities has also ficult given the immense pressure local jurisdictions face to aggravated this issue, since many freight facilities are situated ensure that tax revenues stay constant and that land is devel- in these areas because of their long history. oped according to its highest and best use. From the freight Not surprisingly, these conflicts often affect property values. perspective, these conflicts often result in barriers to efficient Differing land uses can have adverse effects on landowners freight transportation. due to either rising or falling values, depending on the use This chapter provides an overview of conflicting land uses involved. For example, freight-transportation-related services and their impact on freight-transportation-related services. can lower property values because of noise, vibration, pollution, Chapter 4 provides greater detail on these issues, including the and general access issues, potentially resulting in pressure sources of such conflicts and possible solutions for the preser- from other landowners to move the freight operation. On vation and protection of freight infrastructure and routes. the other hand, land uses such as residential neighborhoods and commercial districts that are incompatible with freight- Conflicting Land Uses transportation-related services can cause a rise in property values and property taxes, making freight-transportation- Most land uses related to residential, educational, and related services in the area more expensive. medical use often are incompatible with freight activity. Among the major conflicts non-freight interests have with freight- Barriers to Freight-Transportation- transportation-related services are the following: Related Services Air and water pollution, From the perspective of freight interests, barriers to effi Light pollution, cient freight-transportation-related services often emerge Noise pollution, as a result of unresolved conflicts. Barriers or impediments Effects of vibration, to the economically efficient transportation of freight can be Safety issues, and due to numerous factors, including land-use decisions that Congestion. create conflicts with other land uses, insufficient funding for the maintenance or expansion of freight facilities and cor- Some conflicts--such as noise, light, and vibration--are ridors, and public policy decisions that impede or do not common to all of the primary freight modes. Other conflicts sufficiently accommodate the needs of freight transportation.