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OCR for page 28
28 areas that no longer have deep-water access, which were being site, CenterPoint, estimated that it dealt with over 50 gov redeveloped into higher value uses, and areas with deep-water ernment entities while developing the project. JADA also access, which were being preserved for uses dependent on that developed a short list of transportation projects as a way of access. In the example of the Whitaker Intermodal Terminal, generating agreement among stakeholders as to which proj- the residents of Austell had never had direct experience living ects were most critical. This led to the creation of a transpor- next to a rail yard and had an instinctively negative impression tation management association for the area that is expected of what would be likely to happen if the terminal was built. to serve as a coordinator for those projects involving multiple Basic miscommunication in this area included the fact that jurisdictions. the site's total acreage, which was much larger than the physical Communication regarding resumption of freight service is footprint of the industrial site to allow for buffering, was used another critical element that the freight groups may need to as a negative talking point against the project, when it actually undertake. In the case of the Staten Island Railroad resump- made the site less intrusive to surrounding uses than smaller tion of service, CSX conducted a significant public outreach freight yards in Atlanta. campaign to notify the public about the resumed service and Communicating the importance of preservation of indus- also went to schools to ensure that children did not play in trial land and freight connections is extremely important the right of way. because, in many instances, suitable and available property for Engaging the freight community also can assist a local relocation is not available. In the case of Baltimore's MIZOD, jurisdiction in ranking the severity of bottlenecks. The freight analysis also found there were many suitable substitute groups involved in the Atlanta plan provided ranking scores locations for attractive mixed-use development within the for funding prioritization on projects that were placed urban area, but there were no substitutes for deep-water into the Transportation Improvement Program submitted to frontage. Communication and outreach efforts sometimes Georgia's DOT. Freight interests also noted that some of the pay dividends far into the future. The wide-ranging discus- new types of in-fill and urban mixed-use development did sions of future uses for the Joliet Arsenal facility, which began not provide for effective freight deliveries. Being able to meet even prior to its closing, helped the project to overcome in a neutral forum and discuss such issues is critical to getting some early hiccups--such as the proposed placement of a planning and site designs formulated to make sure of the landfill on the site--and emerge with a stronger, sounder appropriate accounting for freight needs. plan at the end. Specific strategies for improving communication between Portland and the State of Oregon have undertaken freight and land-use stakeholders would include the formation multiple inventories and reviews of Portland's industrial of standing planning committees and the regular exchange land holdings to redress perceptions that industrial land is of internal planning materials and decisions (redacted where unimportant. Portland's 2004 industrial districts atlas noted necessary). Private-sector groups, including local chambers that "Portland's industrial districts are unknown territory of commerce, can play an important role in keeping freight to most residents" (City of Portland 2004). The governor, issues on the agenda and ensuring buy-in from the business in convening the industrial lands task force, tasked it with community when a freight-related project is proposed. Improv- "addressing the perception that many of the fast growing ing communication through various levels of government areas critical to Oregon's economy have not maintained an also is required and must be a two-way channel. adequate supply of industrial lands ..." (Oregon Industrial Conversion Study Committee 2004). Although Oregon and Summary of Lessons Learned Portland are to be commended for their activities, the cost of continuously conducting inventories to make the case for The critical issues identified in the NCFRP Project 24 preservation underlies the need for better communication research are as follows: about the value of freight to our economy (locally, regionally, and globally), and the tax revenues and other benefits that a 1. There is no single entity at the federal level with respon- community gains because of a vibrant freight network. sibility for freight planning, financing, or project imple- The Joliet Arsenal redevelopment shows how communica- mentation in the United States. tion, correctly undertaken, can lead to community support Multiple federal agencies oversee different aspects of for a project. The most important communication tool that the U.S. freight network and none have authority over this project developed was the state-created Joliet Arsenal land-use planning activities. Development Authority (JADA). This authority not only Federal funding for freight preservation and protection developed a strategic plan for the site's redevelopment, job activities has been sporadic and is complicated by the creation, and tax revenues, but it was also a forum for over a fact that significant portions of the U.S. freight network dozen public agencies to work together. The developer of the are privately owned.

OCR for page 28
29 2. The land-use planning arena is the primary forum where Guidance needs to be provided to land-use planners regard- conflicts between freight and other land uses are either ing appropriate planning and zoning practices that relate to avoided or created, and where preservation of freight freight. For example, zoning overlays and industrial pro- corridors and facilities are either helped or hindered. tection zones can be put in place, not just for the industrial 3. Local governments have primary jurisdiction over land-use areas that are serviced by freight, but also for the corridors planning in the United States. that link to them. 4. In general, land-use planning processes inadequately ac- Accurate mapping of freight facilities and corridors should commodate freight needs. There are many reasons for become part of the comprehensive planning process. this, including Mapping of such facilities will contribute to the preserva- Land-use planners are typically not taught about freight tion and protection of these facilities. as part of their standard educational curriculum. Cooperative regional planning efforts, such as regional Maps that identify freight facilities and corridors gener- visioning processes, should include freight entities as key ally lack sufficient accuracy and detail to make informed stakeholders and make freight a significant focus. land-use decisions. State and national associations related to planning or devel- Freight entities are generally not significantly involved opment should provide the appropriate education and tools in local land-use and transportation visioning and com- related to freight planning for city and county planners. prehensive planning processes. Freight entities should participate as stakeholders in local, Local jurisdictions have a financial incentive to zone for regional, and state planning and visioning processes. uses with higher tax values. Private-sector groups, including local chambers of com- 5. Because the primary responsibility for land-use planning merce, can play an important role in keeping freight issues lies with local jurisdictions, planning for freight needs that on the agenda and ensuring buy-in from the business com- is done is performed on a piecemeal basis that does not munity when a preservation project is proposed. account for the fact that most freight transportation cor- Freight groups (both private sector and government) need ridors transcend jurisdictional boundaries. to partner with educational institutions to ensure that the State and regional planning agencies do not typically underlying principles of freight activity are included as part have the land-use planning authority to fill the gap in of the curriculum at the graduate and undergraduate levels freight planning. in planning, architecture, policy, engineering, business, MPOs are not authorized to conduct transportation and law disciplines. planning outside of their designated areas. Ports that have started tracking port-related job impacts 6. Regional visioning exercises generally do not deal adequately throughout the region need to make a similar scale effort with freight. to quantify the congestion and noise impacts that they 7. Funding is often lacking or insufficient for freight planning produce outside of the immediate port area. Port master and preservation. plans should illustrate affiliated congestion and chokepoints 8. There is a lack of effective communication among freight beyond their own properties. Similar activities should be and land-use/transportation planning stakeholders. undertaken by other types of freight operations that cannot be easily relocated. This study's research identified potential solutions to these Innovative funding practices, including public-private issues, including the following: partnerships and rights of first refusal, are needed for freight planning and preservation. Ideally, state enabling acts should be amended to require Real estate contracts and other notice-type documents pro- that freight be one of the key elements that states, local vided to purchasers and lessees should include sections dis- jurisdictions, and planning agencies account for in both cussing the possible freight-related impacts that may occur transportation planning and land-use planning. as a consequence of living in proximity to freight activities.