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41 provide for consideration of all modes of transportation and is for that reason, have a significant impact on freight movement. required to be continuing, cooperative, and comprehensive to In addition, local governments often respect and protect cor- the degree appropriate given the complexity of transportation ridors shown on MPO long-range plan maps. problems to be addressed. States are required to coordinate An MPO long-range transportation plan is required to be with the MPOs. State DOTs also are encouraged to develop updated every 4 years (or more frequently, if the MPO elects the transportation portion of the state implementation plan to update more frequently) in the case of each of the following: as required by the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.). The scope of the statewide planning process requires that Any area designated as nonattainment, as defined in sec- each state provide for consideration and implementation of tion 107(d) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7407(d)). projects, strategies, and services that Any area that was nonattainment and subsequently des- ignated to attainment in accordance with section 107(d) Support the economic vitality of the United States, the states, (3) of that act (42 U.S.C. 7407(d) (3)) and that is subject nonmetropolitan areas, and metropolitan areas, especially to a maintenance plan under section 175(a) of that act by enabling global competitiveness, productivity, and (42 U.S.C. 7505a) (United States Code 23 U.S.C. 134 2007). efficiency; Increase the safety of the transportation system for motor- The plan is required to be fiscally constrained, indicate ized and nonmotorized users; resources from public and private sources that are reasonably Increase the security of the transportation system for expected to be made available to carry out the plan, and recom- motorized and nonmotorized users; mend any additional financing strategies for needed projects. Increase the accessibility and mobility of people and freight; Protect and enhance the environment, promote energy Federal Transportation Bill Requirements conservation, improve the quality of life, and promote con- for MPO Plans sistency between transportation improvements and state and local planned growth and economic development patterns; From the federal perspective, planning for freight changed Enhance the integration and connectivity of the transporta- in 1991 with the introduction of the ISTEA. ISTEA required tion system, across and between modes throughout the state, the MPOs and state DOTs to conduct freight planning as one for people and freight; of 15 factors to be considered as they developed the state and Promote efficient system management and operation; and local transportation plans (ISTEA 1024, codified at Section Emphasize the preservation of the existing transportation 134 of Title 23 of United States Code). system. This was mirrored in the two subsequent re-authorization acts, TEA-21 and SAFETEA-LU, which also added some As part of the development of the statewide transportation specific freight-orientated sections to fund large-scale freight plan, the state must provide citizens, affected agencies, freight preservation projects such as the Alameda Corridor in Cali- shippers, private providers of transportation, and other stake- fornia, CREATE in Chicago, and border trade and corridor holders with a reasonable opportunity to comment on the facilities. proposed plan. These opportunities usually take the form of TEA-21 required that the metropolitan planning process public meetings. for freight seek to The STPs and STIPs can be found on the respective state DOTs' websites. These are usually located on the planning Support the economic vitality of the metropolitan area by department or division's section of the website. promoting and enabling global competitiveness, produc- tivity, and efficiency; MPO Planning Enhance the integration and connectivity of the transporta tions system, across and between modes, for people and MPOs are mandated by federal law for most metropolitan freight; areas. An MPO is an organization that includes representatives Promote efficient system management and operation; and from local government and governmental transportation Include the freight community in the development of both authorities. Often, COGs function as MPOs. MPOs are required the Regional Transportation Plan and the Transportation by federal law (United States Code 23 U.S.C. 134 2007) to Improvement Plan. prepare and update a long-range transportation plan for its metropolitan planning area, as well as a shorter-range In 2005, SAFETEA-LU added the following: "transportation improvement program" to which construction funds are allocated. The MPO plans determine where federal MPOs are encouraged to consult and coordinate with transportation funds will be spent within the planning area and, planning officials responsible for other types of planning