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44 regulation. However, corridor approval will require environ- When a developer files a permit request, it is submitted to mental analyses to determine and confirm the final corridor the state DOT for review and approval. location on a map. Advanced planning allows local govern- The DOT will have a set period of time to approve or deny ments and private parties to better plan developments while the request (usually 30 to 120 days). more land is vacant, minimizing social, economic, and envi- ronmental impacts (Perfater 1989). Advanced planning also According to FHWA, this process can involve negotiations provides notice to citizens, property owners, and developers with developers to ensure compatible land use at permit through adoption of an official thoroughfare protection map approval (U.S. Department of Transportation 2000). Under (Williams and Marshall 1996). its official mapping power, the North Carolina DOT can Official mapping requires state or local statutory authority, delay a project filed for development along a corridor for although existing statutes may, in many cases, already provide up to 3 years. If an agreement is not reached within 3 years, the needed authority. The most often cited example of corridor the state must acquire the corridor. North Carolina also was mapping and management legislation is Florida's 1995 corridor given significant permitting and encroachment prevention management legislation. Florida requires the designation procedures regarding rail in its 1988 Rail Corridor Preservation of corridors in local comprehensive plans consistent with Act. This gave the North Carolina DOT "authority to purchase Florida's growth management policy. Florida's law encour- railroads and preserve corridors" (North Carolina Department ages local governments to designate corridors, adopt corridor of Transportation 2010). The North Carolina DOT can use the management ordinances, and create official corridor maps. same process for rail corridor development permitting that it Local governments are directed to notify the Florida DOT uses it for highway corridors. (FDOT) before approving any rezoning, building permit, or As a recommended best practice, official mapping, along with subdivision change (within 1,000 feet of the corridors) that development permitting, provides the optimal process to pro- may impact the future viability of the corridor. This creates a tect and preserve freight routes and facilities. This would reduce process whereby FDOT can identify problems and then nego- the speculation that often occurs around industrial land and tiate for alternatives to mitigate impacts. often leads to inappropriate rezoning. It also would reduce un- Highway corridor preservation research also has found that certainty that currently exists around many U.S. freight facilities. in conjunction with legislatively authorized mapping powers, several states employ a development review and permitting Summary process to ensure compatible use within and along the cor- ridor. The process for review is simple, as follows: Figure 6-6 summarizes the planning process and the role of various elements, including regional visioning, long-range Corridors are prioritized, and a map is filed with the relevant planning, and the comprehensive plan. Zoning issues will local jurisdiction. be discussed in Chapter 7. Many of these processes are authorized, mandated, and/or regulated by state enabling acts Source: Grow & Bruening. Figure 6-6. Planning process summary.